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Zusammenfassung

Seit über 50 Jahren ist Luft das am häufigsten gebrauchte Kontrastmittel zur röntgenologischen Darstellung des Hirnkammersystems. Zweifellos besitzt diese auch anderen Kontrastmitteln gegenüber einige wichtige Vorzüge: Sie ist ungiftig, leicht zu handhaben, rasch resorbierbar, kostet nichts und ist praktisch überall verfügbar (Bull, 1950). Für einen großen Teil der notwendig werdenden Ventrikeldarstellungen wird deshalb auch in Zukunft atmosphärische Luft benutzt werden. Von Anfang an hafteten ihr als Kontrastmittel jedoch bestimmte Mängel an. Durch die Einführung von Gasen in das Liquorsystem kommt es zwangsläufig zu einer Änderung der intrakraniellen Druckverhältnisse und der Liquorbewegung. Besonders beim Vorliegen eines raumfordernden Prozesses werden die Druckschwankungen häufig nicht kompensiert. Es kann zu Massenverschiebungen des Gehirns und möglicherweise zu einer Einklemmung im Tentoriumschlitz oder Hinterhauptsloch kommen. Auf der anderen Seite gelingt es, gerade bei Tumoren der hinteren Schädelgrube, auch mit modernen Verfahren der gezielten fraktionierten Pneumenzephalographie oft nicht, die schmalen medialen, meist zusätzlich vom Tumor eingeengten Ventrikelabschnitte ausreichend darzustellen. Das gilt ganz besonders für den Aquädukt und den vierten Ventrikel. Von Davidoff und Epstein (1950) stammt eine Zusammenstellung über die pneumenzephalographischen Befunde bei 56 Patienten mit raumfordernden Prozessen der hinteren Schädelgrube.

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