Aetiology of Childhood Cancer: Epidemiological Approach

  • Robert W. Miller
Part of the Recent Results in Cancer Research / Fortschritte der Krebsforschung / Progrès dans les recherches sur le cancer book series (RECENTCANCER, volume 13)


Epidemiology is an important source of clues to the origins of cancer. Until recently, this research approach has been focussed on the more numerous cancers of adults. The epidemiology of childhood cancer received little attention, because paediatricians were mainly concerned with diagnosis, pathological physiology, and therapy.


Childhood Cancer Tuberous Sclerosis Atomic Bomb Childhood Leukaemia Primary Immunodeficiency Disease 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    PEARSON, D., STEWARD, J. K.: Malignant disease in juveniles. Proc. R. Soc. Med. 62, 17–20 (1969)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    FRAUMENI, J. F., Jr., GEISER, C. F., MANNING, M. D.: Wilms’ tumour and congenital hemihypertrophy: report of five new cases and review of literature. Pediatrics 40, 886–899 (1967)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    MILLER, R. W.: Neoplasia and Down’s syndrome. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 171, 637–644 (1970)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    DUNLAP, C. E.: Effects of radiation on blood and hemopoietic tissues, including spleen, thymus and lymph nodes. Arch. Pathol. 34, 562–608 (1942)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    WADA, S., MIYANISHI, M., NISHIMOTO, Y., KAMBE, S., MILLER, R. W.: Mustard gas as a cause of respiratory neoplasia in man. Lancet 1, 1161–1163 (1968)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    ISHIMARU, T., HOSHINO, T., ICHIMARU, M., et al.: Leukaemia in atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1 October 1950 – 30 September 1966. Radiat. Res. 45, 216–233 (1971)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    MILLER, R. W.: Delayed effects occurring within the first decade after exposure of young individuals to the Hiroshima atomic bomb. Pediatrics 18, 1–18 (1956)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    JABLON, S., TACHIKAWA, K., BELSKY, J. L., et al.: Cancer in Japanese exposed as children to atomic bombs. Lancet 1, 927–931 (1971)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    HERBST, A. L., ULFELDER, H., POSKANZER, D. C.: Adenocarcinoma of the vagina: association of maternal stilbestrol therapy with tumour appearance in young women. N. Engl. J. Med. 284, 878–881 (1971)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    ANTHONY, J. J.: Malignant lymphoma associated with hydantoin drugs. Arch. Neurol. 22, 450–454 (1970)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    STEWART, A., KNEALE, G. W.: Changes in the cancer risk associated with obstetric radiography. Lancet 1, 104–107 (1968)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    MACMAHON, B.: Prenatal X-ray exposure and childhood cancer. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 28, 1173–1191 (1962)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    STEWART, A., KNEALE, G. W.: Radiation dose effects in relation to obstetric X-rays and childhood cancers. Lancet 1, 1185–1188 (1970)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    JABLON, S., KATO, H.: Childhood cancer in relation to prenatal exposure to atomic-bomb radiation. Lancet 2, 1000–1003 (1970)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    BRENT, R. L.: Personal communicationGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    PIKE, M. C., WILLIAMS, E. H., WRIGHT, B.: Burkitt’s tumour in the West Nile District of Uganda. 1961–5. Br. Med. J. 2, 395–399 (1967)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    MANTEL, N.: The detection of disease clustering and a generalized regression approach. Cancer Res. 27, 209–220 (1967)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    GLASS, A. G., MANTEL, N., GUNZ, F. W., et al.: Time-space clustering of childhood leukaemia in New Zealand. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 47, 329–336 (1971)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    KNOX, G.: Epidemiology of childhood leukaemia in Northumberland and Durham. Br. J. Prev. Soc. Med. 18, 17–24 (1964)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    TILL, M. M., HARDISTY, R. M., PIKE, M. C., DOLL, R.: Childhood leukaemia in Greater London: a search for evidence of clustering Br. Med. J. 3, 755–758 (1967)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    MILHAM, S. Jr.: Leukaemia in husbands and wives. Science 148, 98–100 (1965)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    FRAUMENI, J. F. Jr.: Sex ratio of children born of leukaemic mothers. Pediatrics 33, 587–589 (1964)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    MILLER, R. W.: The viral etiology of leukaemia: an epidemiologic evaluation. In: ZARAFONETIS, C. J. D. Proceedings of the International Conference on Leukaemia-Lymphoma. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger, 1968, pp. 23–29Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    MILLER, R. W.: Down’s syndrome (mongolism), other congenital malformations, and cancers among the sibs of leukaemic children. N. Engl. J. Med. 268, 393–401 (1963)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    HECHT, F., KOLAR, R. D., RIGAS, G. S., et al.: Leukaemia and lymphocytes in ataxia-telangiectasia. Lancet 2, 1193 (1966)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    VIANNA, N. J., GREENWALD, P., DAVIES, J. N. P.: Extended epidemic of Hodgkin’s disease in high-school students. Lancet 1, 1209–1211 (1971)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    ÇAVDAR, A.O., ARCASOY, A., GöZDAşOğLU, S., DEMIRAğ, B.: Chloroma-like ocular manifestations in Turkish children with acute myelomonocytic leukaemia. Lancet 1, 680–682 (1971)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    FRAUMENI, J. F., Jr., MANNING, M. D., MITUS, W. J.: Acute childhood leukaemia: epidemiologic study by cell type of 1,263 cases at the Children’s Cancer Research Foundation in Boston, 1947–65. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 46, 461–470 (1971)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    FRAUMENI, J. F., Jr.: Genetic factors in the etiology of cancer. In: Cancer Medicine. HOLLAND, J. F., FREI, E. (eds.). Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger, In pressGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    ANDERSON, D. E.: Genetic varieties of neoplasia. In: Genetic Concepts and Neoplasia. Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins, 1970, pp. 85–104Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    KNUDSON, A. G., Jr.: Mutation and cancer: statistical study of retinoblastoma. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 68, 820–823 (1971)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    KNUDSON, A. G. Jr., STRONG, L. C.: Mutation and cancer: a model for Wilms’ tumour of the kidney. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 48, 313–324 (1972)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    SORSBY, A.: Bilateral retinoblastoma: a dominantly inherited affection. Br. Med. J. 2, 580–583 (1972)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    GERMAN, J.: Bloom’s syndrome. 1. Genetical and clinical observations in the first twenty-seven patients. Am. J. Hum. Genet. 21, 196–227 (1969)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    DOSIK, H., HSU, L. Y., TODARO, G. J., et al.: Leukaemia in Fanconi’s anemia: cytogenetic and tumour virus susceptibility studies. Blood 36, 341–352 (1970)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    TODARO, G. J.: Variable susceptibility of human cell strains to SV4O transformation. Natl. Cancer Inst. Monogr. 29, 271–275 (1968)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    GATTI, R. A., GOOD, R. A.: Occurrence of malignancy in immunodeficiency diseases. A literature review. Cancer 28, 89–98 (1971)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    GERMAN, J.: Genes which increase chromosomal instability in somatic cells and predispose to cancer. Prog. Med. Genet. 8, 61–101 (1972)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    SPECTOR, B. D.: Personal communicationGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    KERSEY, J. H., GATTI, R. A., GOOD, R. A., et al.: Susceptibility of cells from patients with primary immunodeficiency diseases to transformation by Simian Virus 40. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 69, 980–982 (1972)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    KURITA, S., KAMAI, Y.: Genetics of familial leukaemia. Jap. J. Hum. Genet. 14, 163–179 (1969)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    ZUELZER, W. W., COX, D. E.: Genetic aspects of leukaemia. Semin. Hematol. 6, 228–249 (1969)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    MILLER, R. W.: Deaths from childhood leukaemia and solid tumours among twins and other sibs in the United States, 1960–67. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 46, 203–209 (1971)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    CLARKSON, B. D., BOYSE, E. A.: Possible explanation of the high concordance for acute leukaemia in monozygotic twins. Lancet 1, 699–701 (1971)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    JENSEN, R. D., DRAKE, R. M.: Rarity of Ewing’s tumour in Negroes. Lancet 1, 777 (1970)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    International Union Against Cancer, Committee on Cancer in Children. Unpublished dataGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    MILLER, R. W.: Relation between cancer and congenital defects: an epidemiologic evaluation. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 40, 1079–1085 (1968)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    ARAKI, C., MATSUMOTO, S.: Statistical re-evaluation of pinealoma and related tumours in Japan. J. Neurosurg. 30, 146–149 (1969)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    LEE, D. K., ABBOTT, N. L.: Familial central nervous system neoplasia. Case report of a family with von Recklinghausen’s neurofibromatosis. Arch. Neurol. 20, 154–160 (1969)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    LI, F. P., FRAUMENI, J. F. Jr.: Soft-tissue sarcomas, breast cancer and other neoplasms. A familial syndrome. Ann. Intern. Med. 71, 747–752 (1969)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    LI, F. P., FRAUMENI, J. F. Jr.: Rhabdomyosarcoma in children, epidemiologic study and identification of a familial cancer syndrome. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 43, 1365–1373 (1969)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    MILLER, R. W., FRAUMENI, J. F. Jr.. Manning, M. D.: Association of Wilms’ tumour with aniridia, hemihypertrophy and other congenital malformations. N. Engl. J. Med. 270, 922–927 (1964)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    EPSTEIN, L. I., BIXLER, D., BENNETT, J. E.: An incident of familial cancer. Including 3 cases of osteogenic sarcoma. Cancer 25, 889–891 (1970)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    MILLER, R. W., FRAUMENI, J. F. Jr., HILL, J. A.: Neuroblastoma: epidemiologic approach to its origins. Am. J. Dis. Child. 115, 253–261 (1968)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    CHATTEN, J., VOORHESS, M. L.: Familial neuroblastoma. Report of a kindred with multiple disorders, including neuroblastomas in four siblings. N. Engl. J. Med. 227, 1230–1236 (1967)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    SNYDER, A. L., LI, F. P., HENDERSON, E. S. et al.: Familial acute myelogenous leukaemia: identification of possible inherited leukaemogenic factors in a kindred. Lancet 1, 586–589 (1970)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    JENSEN, R. D., MILLER, R. W.: Retinoblastoma: epidemiologic characteristics. N. Engl. J. Med. 285, 307–311 (1971)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    MELICOW, M. M.: Tumours of dysgenetic gonads in intersexes: case reports and discussion regarding their place in gonadal oncology. Bull. N. Y. Acad. Med. 42, 3–20 (1966)PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    FRAUMENI, J. F., GLASS, A. G.: Wilms’ tumour and congenital aniridia. JAMA 206, 825–828 (1968)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    AKSOY, M., DINCOL, K., ERDEM, S. et al.: Acute leukaemia due to chronic exposure to benzene. Am. J. Med. 52, 160–166 (1972)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    AWA, A. A., NERIISHI, S., HONDA, T., et al.: Chromosome-aberration frequency in cultured blood-cells in relation to radiation dose of A-Bomb survivors. Lancet 2, 903–905 (1971)PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    FORNI, A., PACIFICO, E., LIMONTA, A.: Chromosome studies in workers exposed to benzene or toluene or both. Arch. Environ. Health 22, 373–378 (1971)PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin · Heidelberg 1976

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert W. Miller

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations