The Effect of Cognitive Manipulation on Pupillary Diameter and Evoked Vertex Potentials

  • G. Hakerem
Part of the Symposion der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft book series (OPH.GES.)


The phenomenon of pupillary dilation to fear, pain, discomfort and strong emotion has been known for centuries. Lowenstein was probably the first to produce objective evidence of this dilation by cinephotographic recordings and his experiments led to further exploration of the anatomical and psychological connections mechanism of this phenomenon. Loewenfeld in 1958 in a brilliant dissertation summarized the research findings on the dilation mechanism and added important findings of her own.


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Copyright information

© J. F. Bergmann, München 1973

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. Hakerem
    • 1
  1. 1.Dept. of Mental HygieneQueens College of CUNY and Biometrics Research N.Y. StateUSA

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