Advertisement

DNA Vaccines for Infectious Diseases, Allergies and Cancer

  • R. G. Whalen

Abstract

DNA vaccination involves the direct injection of a suitable designed plasmid DNA molecule into a tissue such that the antigenic proteins encoded by the plasmid are expressed in the cells of the treated host. This extraordinarily simple approach has been translated into practice for many antigens from infectious agents, for putative tumor antigens, and for certain potential allergens. If the results currently obtained in animal models can be replicated with equal efficiency in humans and large animals, and if the justifiable concerns about safety can be resolved, then the DNA vaccination may become the basis for an entirely new generation of vaccines.

Keywords

Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus Genetic Immunization Putative Tumor Antigen 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Anderson ED, Mourich DV, Fahrenkrug SC, La Patra S, Shepherd J, Leong JA (1996a) Genetic immunization of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) against infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus. Mol Mar Biol Biotechnol 5:114–122PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson ED, Mourich DV, Leong JA (1996b) Gene expression in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) following intramuscular injection of DNA. Mol Mar Biol Biotechnol 5:105–113PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Anderson R, Gao XM, Papakonstantinopoulou A, Roberts M, Dougan G (1996c) Immune response in mice following immunization with DNA encoding fragment C of tetanus toxin. Infect Immun 64:3168–3173PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Angus CW, Klivington D, Wyman J, Kovacs JA (1996) Nucleic acid vaccination against Toxoplasma gondii in mice. J Eukaryot Microbiol 43:117SGoogle Scholar
  5. Asakura Y, Hamajima K, Fukushima J, Mohri H, Okubo T, Okuda K (1996) Induction of HIV-1 Nef-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes by Nef-expressing DNA vaccine. Am J Hematol 53:116–117PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barry MA, Lai WC, Johnston SA (1995) Protection against mycoplasma infection using expression-library immunization. Nature 377:632–635PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bohm W, Kuhrober A, Paier T, Mertens T, Reimann J, Schirmbeck R (1996) DNA vector constructs that prime hepatitis B surface antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte and antibody responses in mice after intramuscular injection. J Immunol Methods 193:29–40PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bot A, Bot S, Garcia-Sastre A, Bona C (1996) DNA immunization of newborn mice with a plasmid-expressing nucleoprotein of influenza virus. Viral Immunol 9:207–210PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bourne N, Stanberry LR, Bernstein DI, Lew D (1996) DNA immunization against experimental genital herpes simplex virus infection. J Infect Dis 173:800–807PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Boyer JD, Wang B, Ugen KE, Agadjanyan M, Javadian A, Frost P, Dang K, Carrano RA, Ciccarelli R, Coney L et al. (1996) In vivo protective anti-HIV immune responses in non-human primates through DNA immunization. J Med Primatol 25:242–250PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Boyer JD, Ugen KE, Wang B, Agadjanyan M, Gilbert L, Bagarazzi ML, Chattergoon M, Frost P, Javadian A, Williams WV, Refaeli Y, Ciccarelli RB, McCallus D, Coney L, Weiner DB (1997) Protection of chimpanzees from high-dose heterologous HIV-1 challenge by DNA vaccination. Nat Med 3:526–532PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Boyle CM, Morin M, Webster RG, Robinson HL (1996) Role of different lymphoid tissues in the initiation and maintenance of DNA-raised antibody responses to the influenza virus Hi glycoprotein. J Virol 70:9074–9078PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Cardoso AI, Blixenkrone-Moller M, Fayolle J, Liu M, Buckland R, Wild TF (1996) Immunization with plasmid DNA encoding for the measles virus hemagglutinin and nucleoprotein leads to humoral and cell-mediated immunity. Virology 225:293–299PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chow YH, Huang WL, Chi WK, Chu YD, Tao MH (1997) Improvement of hepatitis B virus DNA vaccines by plasmids coexpressing hepatitis B surface antigen and interleukin-2. J Virol 71:169–178PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Ciernik IF, Berzofsky JA, Carbone DP (1996) Induction of cytotoxic T lymphocytes and antitumor immunity with DNA vaccines expressing single T cell epitopes. J Immunol 156:2369–2375PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Concetti A, Amici A, Petrelli C, Tibaldi A, Provinciali M, Venanzi FM (1996) Autoantibody to p185erbB2/neu oncoprotein by vaccination with xenogenic DNA. Cancer Immunol Immunother 43:307–315PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Corr M, Lee DJ, Carson DA, Tighe H (1996) Gene vaccination with naked plasmid DNA: mechanism of CTL priming. J Exp Med 184:1555–1560PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cox GJ, Zamb TJ, Babiuk LA (1993) Bovine herpesvirus 1: immune responses in mice and cattle injected with plasmid DNA. J Virol 67:5664–5667PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Davis HL, Michel ML, Whalen RG (1993) DNA-based immunization induces continuous secretion of hepatitis B surface antigen and high levels of circulating antibody. Hum Mol Genet 2:1847–1851PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Davis HL, Michel ML, Mancini M, Schleef M, Whalen RG (1994) Long-lasting production of antibody to hepatitis B surface antigen after genetic vaccination with pure plasmid DNA expression vectors. In: Eighth Cent-Gardes Colloquium, Mérieux Foundation, Paris, pp. 329–334Google Scholar
  21. Davis HL, Michel ML, Mancini M, Schleef M, Whalen RG (1995) DNA-based immunization overcomes H-2 haplotype-restricted nonresponsiveness to HBsAg in mice. In: Chanock RM, Brown F, Ginsberg HS, Norrby E (eds) Vaccines ‘95. Cold Spring Harbor Press, New York, pp 111–116Google Scholar
  22. Davis HL, Mancini M, Michel ML, Whalen RG (1996a) DNA-mediated immunization to hepatitis B surface antigen: longevity of primary response and effect of boost. Vaccine 14:910–915PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Davis HL, McCluskie MJ, Gerin IL, Purcell RH (1996b) DNA vaccine for hepatitis B: evidence for immunogenicity in chimpanzees and comparison with other vaccines. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93:7213–7218PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Deck RR, Ditt CM, Donnelly JJ, Liu MA, Ulmer JB (1997) Characterization of humoral immune responses induced by an influenza hemagglutinin DNA vaccine. Vaccine 15:71–78PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Donnelly JJ, Friedman A, Martinez D, Montgomery DL, Shiver JW, Motzel SL, Ulmer JB, Liu MA (1995) Preclinical efficacy of a prototype DNA vaccine: enhanced protection against antigenic drift in influenza virus. Nat Med 1:583–587PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Donnelly JJ, Martinez D, Jansen KU, Ellis RW, Montgomery DL, Liu MA (1996) Protection against papillomavirus with a polynucleotide vaccine. J Infect Dis 173:314–320PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Doolan DL, Sedegah M, Hedstrom RC, Hobart P, Charoenvit Y, Hoffman SL (1996) Circumventing genetic restriction of protection against malaria with multigene DNA immunization: CD8 + cell-, interferon gamma-, and nitric oxide-dependent immunity. J Exp Med 183:1739–1746PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Feltquate DM, Heaney S, Webster RG, Robinson HL (1997) Different T helper cell types and antibody isotypes generated by saline and gene gun DNA immunization. J Immunol 158:2278–2284PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Fooks AR, Jeevarajah D, Warnes A, Wilkinson GW, Clegg JC (1996) Immunization of mice with plasmid DNA expressing the measles virus nucleoprotein gene. Viral Immunol 9:65–71PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Fu TM, Friedman A, Ulmer JB, Liu MA, Donnelly JJ (1997) Protective cellular immunity: cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses against dominant and recessive epitopes of influenza virus nucleoprotein induced by DNA immunization. J Virol 71:2715–2721PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Fuller DH, Murphey-Corb M, Clements J, Barnett S, Haynes JR (1996) Induction of immunodeficiency virus-specific immune responses in rhesus monkeys following gene gun-mediated DNA vaccination. J Med Primatol 25:236–241PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Gardner MJ, Doolan DL, Hedstrom RC, Wang R, Sedegah M, Gramzinski RA, Aguiar JC, Wang H, Margalith M, Hobart P et al. (1996) DNA vaccines against malaria: immunogenicity and protection in a rodent model. J Pharm Sci 85:1294–1300PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Geissler M, Gesien A, Tokushige K, Wands JR (1997a) Enhancement of cellular and humoral immune responses to hepatitis C virus core protein using DNA-based vaccines augmented with cytokine-expressing plasmids. J Immunol 158:1231–1237PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Geissler M, Tokushige K, Chante CC, Zurawski VR Jr, Wands JR (1997b) Cellular and humoral immune response to hepatitis B virus structural proteins in mice after DNA-based immunization. Gastroenterology 112:1307–1320PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Ghiasi H, Cai S, Slanina S, Nesburn AB, Wechsler SL (1996) Vaccination of mice with herpes simplex virus type 1 glycoprotein D DNA produces low levels of protection against lethal HSV-1 challenge. Antiviral Res 28:147–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. González Armas JC, Morello CS, Cranmer LD, Spector DH (1996) DNA immunization confers protection against murine cytomegalovirus infection. J Virol 70:7921–7928Google Scholar
  37. Gregoriadis G, Saffie R, de Souza JB (1997) Liposome-mediated DNA vaccination. FEBS Lett 402:107–110PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hakim I, Levy S, Levy R (1996) A nine-amino acid peptide from IL-1beta augments antitumor immune responses induced by protein and DNA vaccines. J Immunol 157:5503–5511PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Harpin S, Talbot B, Mbikay M, Elazhary Y (1997) Immune response to vaccination with DNA encoding the bovine viral diarrhea virus major glycoprotein gp53 (E2). FEMS Microbiol Lett 146:229–234PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Haynes JR, Mabe DE, Swain WF, Widera G, Fuller JT (1996) Particle-mediated nucleic acid immunization. J Biotechnol 44:37–42PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Herrmann JE, Chen SC, Fynan EF, Santoro JC, Greenberg HB, Robinson HL (1996a) DNA vaccines against rotavirus infections. Arch Virol Suppl 12:207–215PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Herrmann JE, Chen SC, Fynan EF, Santoro JC, Greenberg HB, Wang S, Robinson HL (1996b) Protection against rotavirus infections by DNA vaccination. J Infect Dis 174:S93-S97PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hsu CH, Chua KY, Tao MH, Huang SK, Hsieh KH (1996a) Inhibition of specific I response in vivo by allergen-gene transfer. Int Immunol 8:1405–1411PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hsu CH, Chua KY, Tao MH, Lai YL, Wu HD, Huang SK, Hsieh KH (1996b) Immunoprophylaxis of allergen-induced immunoglobulin E synthesis and airway hyperresponsiveness in vivo by genetic immunization. Nat Med 2:540–544PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Huygen K, Content J, Denis O, Montgomery DL, Yawman AM, Deck RR, De Witt CM, Orme IM, Baldwin S, D’Souza C et al. (1996) Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a tuberculosis DNA vaccine. Nat Med 2:893–898PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Inchauspé G, Vitvitski L, Major ME, Jung G, Spengler U, Maisonnas M, Trépo C (1997) Plasmid DNA expressing a secreted or a nonsecreted form of hepatitis C virus nucleocapsid: comparative studies of antibody and T-helper responses following genetic immunization. DNA Cell Biol 16:185–195PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Irvine KR, Rao JB, Rosenberg SA, Restifo NP (1996) Cytokine enhancement of DNA immunization leads to effective treatment of established pulmonary metastases. J Immunol 156:238–245PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Iwasaki A, Stiernholm BJ, Chan AK, Berinstein NL, Barber BH (1997) Enhanced CTL responses mediated by plasmid DNA immunogens encoding costimulatory molecules and cytokines. J Immunol 158:4591–4601PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Jondal M, Schirmbeck R, Reimann J (1996) MHC class I-restricted CTL responses to exogenous antigens. Immunity 5:295–302PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Justewicz DM, Webster RG (1996) Long-term maintenance of B cell immunity to influenza virus hemagglutinin in mice following DNA-based immunization. Virology 224:10–17PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kim JJ, Ayyavoo V, Bagarazzi ML, Chattergoon MA, Dang K, Wang B, Boyer JD, Weiner DB (1997) In vivo engineering of a cellular immune response by coadministration of IL-12 expression vector with a DNA immunogen. J Immunol 158:816–826PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Klinman DM, Yi AK, Beaucage SL, Conover J, Krieg AM (1996) C motifs present in bacteria DNA rapidly induce lymphocytes to secrete interleukin 6, interleukin 12, and interferon gamma. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93(7): 2879–2883PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Kodihalli S, Haynes JR, Robinson HL, Webster RG (1997) Cross-protection among lethal H5N2 Influenza viruses induced by DNA vaccine to the hemagglutinin. J Virol 71:3391–3396PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Krasemann S, Groschup M, Hunsmann G, Bodemer W (1996) Induction of antibodies against human prion proteins (PrP) by DNA-mediated immunization of PrPo/o mice. J Immunol Methods 199:109–118PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kriesel JD, Spruance SL, Daynes RA, Araneo BA (1996) Nucleic acid vaccine encoding gD2 protects mice from herpes simplex virus type 2 disease. J Infect Dis 173:536–541PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Kuhober A, Pudollek HP, Reifenberg K, Chisari FV, Schlicht HJ, Reimann J, Schirmbeck R (1996) DNA immunization induces antibody and cytotoxic T cell responses to hepatitis B core antigen in H-2b mice. J Immunol 156:3687–3695PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Kuklin N, Daheshia M, Karem K, Manickan E, Rouse BT (1997) Induction of mucosal immunity against herpes simplex virus by plasmid DNA immunization. J Virol 71:3138–3145PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Lai WC, Bennett M, Johnston SA, Barry MA, Pakes SP (1995) Protection against Mycoplasma pulmonis infection by genetic vaccination. DNA Cell Biol 14:643–651PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Leclerc C, Dériaud E, Rojas M, Whalen RG (1997) The preferential induction of a Th1 immune response by DNA-based immunization is mediated by the immunostimulatory effect of plasmid DNA. Cell Immunol (in press)Google Scholar
  60. Lekutis C, Shiver JW, Liu MA, Letvin NL (1997) HIV-1 env DNA vaccine administered to rhesus monkeys elicits MHC class II-restricted CD4 + T helper cells that secrete IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha. J Immunol 158:4471–4477PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Liu MA, Hilleman MR, Kurth R (eds) (1995) DNA vaccines - a new era in vaccinology. Ann NY Acad Sci 772:1–288 (special issue)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Liu MA, Yasutomi Y, Davies ME, Perry HC, Freed DC, Letvin NL, Shiver JW (1996) Vaccination of mice and nonhuman primates using HIV-gene-containing DNA. Antibiot Chemother 48:100–104PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Lu S, Arthos J, Montefiori DC, Yasutomi Y, Manson K, Mustafa F, Johnson E, Santoro JC, Wissink J, Mullins JI et al. (1996) Simian immunodeficiency virus DNA vaccine trial in macaques. J Virol 70:3978–3991PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Mancini M, Hadchouel M, Davis HL, Whalen RG, Tiollais P, Michel ML (1996) DNA- mediated immunization in a transgenic mouse model of the hepatitis B surface antigen chronic carrier state. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 93:12496–12501PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Manickan E, Kanangat S, Rouse RJ, Yu Z, Rouse BT (1997) Enhancement of immune response to naked DNA vaccine by immunization with transfected dendritic cells. J Leukoc Biol 61:125–132PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Martins, LP, Lau LL, Asano MS, Ahmed R (1995) DNA vaccination against persistent viral infection. J Virol 69:2574–2582PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. McClements WL, Armstrong ME, Keys RD, Liu MA (1996) Immunization with DNA vaccines encoding glycoprotein D or glycoprotein B, alone or in combination, induces protective immunity in animal models of herpes simplex virus-2 disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93:11414–11420PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Michel ML, Davis HL, Schleef M, Mancini M, Tiollais P, Whalen RG (1995) DNA- mediated immunization to the hepatitis B surface antigen in mice: aspects of the humoral response mimic hepatitis B viral infection in humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 92:5307–5311PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Milich DR (1988) T- and B-cell recognition of hepatitis B viral antigens. Immunology Today 9:380–386PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Monteil M, Le Potier MF, Guillotin J, Cariolet R, Houdayer C, Eloit M (1996) Genetic immunization of seronegative one-day-old piglets against Pseudorabies induces neutralizing antibodies but not protection and is ineffective in piglets from immune dams. Vet Res 27:443–452PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Mor G, Klinman DM, Shapiro S, Hagiwara E, Sedegah M, Norman JA, Hoffman SL, Steinberg AD (1995) Complexity of the cytokine and antibody response elicited by immunizing mice with Plasmodium yoelii circumsporozoite protein plasmid DNA. J Immunol 155:2039–2046PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Mor G, Singla M, Steinberg AD, Hoffman SL, Okuda K, Klinman DM (1997) Do DNA vaccines induce autoimmune disease? Hum Gene Ther 8:293–300PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Mor G, Yamshchikov G, Sedegah M, Takeno M, Wang R, Houghten RA, Hoffman S, Klinman DM (1996) Induction of neonatal tolerance by plasmid DNA vaccination of mice. J Clin Invest 98:2700–2705PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Pande H, Campo K, Tanamachi B, Forman SJ, Zaia JA (1995) Direct DNA immunization of mice with plasmid DNA encoding the tegument protein pp65 (ppUL83) of human cytomegalovirus induces high levels of circulating antibody to the encoded protein. Scand J Infect Dis Suppl 99:117–120PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Pertmer TM, Roberts TR, Haynes JR (1996) Influenza virus nucleoprotein-specific immunoglobulin G subclass and cytokine responses elicited by DNA vaccination are dependent on the route of vector DNA delivery. J Virol 70:6119–6125PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Phillpotts RJ, Venugopal K, Brooks T (1996) Immunisation with DNA polynucleotides protects mice against lethal challenge with St Louis encephalitis virus. Arch Virol 141:743–749PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Pisetsky DS (1996a) Immune activation by bacterial DNA: a new genetic code. Immunity 5:303–310PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Pisetsky DS (1996b) The immunologic properties of DNA. J Immunol 156:421–423PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Prince AM, Whalen RG, Brotman B (1997) Successful nucleic acid based immunization of newborn chimpanzees against HBV. Vaccine (in press)Google Scholar
  80. Ragno S, Colston MJ, Lowrie DB, Winrow VR, Blake DR, Tascon R (1997) Protection of rats from adjuvant arthritis by immunization with naked DNA encoding for mycobacterial heat shock protein 65. Arthritis Rheum 40:277–283PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Rakhmilevich AL, Turner J, Ford MJ, McCabe D, Sun WH, Sondel PM, Grota K, Yang NS (1996) Gene gun-mediated skin transfection with interleukin 12 gene results in regression of established primary and metastatic murine tumors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 93:6291–6296PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Raz E, Dudler J, Lotz M, Baird SM, Berry CC, Eisenberg RA, Carson DA (1995) Modulation of disease activity in murine systemic lupus erythematosus by cytokine gene delivery. Lupus 4:286–292PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Raz E, Tighe H, Sato Y, Corr M, Dudler JA, Roman M, Swain SL, Spiegelberg HL, Carson DA (1996) Preferential induction of a Th1 immune response and inhibition of specific I antibody formation by plasmid DNA immunization. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 93:5141–5145PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Saito T, Sherman GJ, Kurokohchi K, Guo ZP, Donets M, Yu MYW, Berzofsky JA, Akatsuka T, Feinstone SM (1997) Plasmid DNA-based immunization for hepatitis C virus structural proteins: Immune responses in mice. Gastroenterology 112:1321–1330PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Sakaguchi M, Nakamura H, Sonoda K, Hamada F, Hirai K (1996) Protection of chickens from Newcastle disease by vaccination with a linear plasmid DNA expressing the F protein of Newcastle disease virus. Vaccine 14:747–752PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Sato Y, Roman M, Tighe H, Lee D, Corr M, Nguyen MD, Silverman GJ, Lotz M, Carson DA, Raz E (1996) Immunostimulatory DNA sequences necessary for effective intradermal gene immunization. Science 273:352–354PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Schirmbeck R, Bohm W, Ando K, Chisari FV, Reimann J (1995) Nucleic acid vaccination primes hepatitis B virus surface antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes in nonresponder mice. J Virol 69:5929–5934PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Shiver JW, Davies ME, Perry HC, Freed DC, Liu MA (1996) Humoral and cellular immunities elicited by HIV-1 vaccination. J Pharm Sci 85:1317–1324PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Syrengelas AD, Chen TT, Levy R (1996) DNA immunization induces protective immunity against B-cell lymphoma. Nat Med 2:1038–1041PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Tascon RE, Colston MJ, Ragno S, Stavropoulos E, Gregory D, Lowrie DB (1996) Vaccination against tuberculosis by DNA injection. Nat Med 2:888–892PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Tedeschi V, Akatsuka T, Shih JW, Battegay M, Feinstone SM (1997) A specific antibody response to HCV E2 elicited in mice by intramuscular inoculation of plasmid DNA containing coding sequences for E2. Hepatology 25:459–462PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Tobery TW, Siliciano RF (1997) Targeting of HIV-1 antigens for rapid intracellular degradation enhances cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) recognition and the induction of de novo CTL responses in vivo after immunization. J Exp Med 185:909–920PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Tokunaga T, Yano O, Kuramoto E, Kimura Y, Yamamoto T, Kataoka T, Yamamoto S (1992) Synthetic oligonucleotides with particular base sequences from the NA encoding proteins of Mycobacterium bovis BCG induce interferons and activate natural killer cells. Microbiol Immunol 36:55–66PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Tokushige K, Wakita T, Pachuk C, Moradpour, Weiner DB, Zurawski VR, Jr, Wands JR (1996) Expression and immune response to hepatitis C virus core DNA-based vaccine constructs. Hepatology 24:14–20PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Torres CA, Iwasaki A, Barber BH, Robinson HL (1997) Differential dependence on target site tissue for gene gun and intramuscular DNA immunizations. J Immunol 158:4529–4532PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Tsuji T, Fukushima J, Hamajima K, Ishii N, Aoki I, Bukawa H, Ishigatsubo Y, Tani K, Okubo T, Dorf ME, Okuda K (1997a) HIV-1-specific cell-mediated immunity is enhanced by co-inoculation of TCA3 expression plasmid with DNA vaccine. Immunology 90:1–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Tsuji T, Hamajima K, Ishii N, Aoki I, Fukushima J, Xin KQ, Kawamoto S, Sasaki S, Matsunaga K, Ishigatsubo Y, Tani K, Okubo T, Okuda K (1997b) Immunomodulatory effects of a plasmid expressing B7-2 on human immunodeficiency virus-1-specific cell-mediated immunity induced by a plasmid encoding the viral antigen. Eur J Immunol 27:782–787PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Ulmer JB, Donnelly JJ, Parker SE, Rhodes GH, Felgner PL, Dwarki VJ, Gromkowski SH, Deck RR, De Witt CM, Friedman A et al. (1993) Heterologous protection against influenza by injection of DNA encoding a viral protein. Science 259:1745–1749PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Ulmer JB, Deck RR, Ditt CM, Donnelly JI, Liu MA (1996) Generation of MHC class I-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocytes by expression of a viral protein in muscle cells: antigen presentation by non-muscle cells. Immunology 89:59–67PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Waisman A, Ruiz PJ, Hirschberg DL, Gelman A, Oksenberg JR, Brocke S, Mor F, Cohen IR, Steinman L (1996) Suppressive vaccination with DNA encoding a variable region gene of the T-cell receptor prevents autoimmune encephalomyelitis and activates Th2 immunity. Nat Med 2:899–905PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Wang Y, Xiang Z, Pasquini S, Ertl HCJ (1997) Immune response to neonatal genetic immunization. Virology 228:278–284PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Whalen RG, Davis HL (1995) DNA-mediated immunization and the energetic immune response to hepatitis B surface antigen. Clin Immunol Immunopathol 75:1–12PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Whalen RG, Leclerc C, Deriaud E, Schirmbeck R, Reimann J, Davis HL (1995) DNA- mediated immunization to the hepatitis B surface antigen. Activation and entrainment of the immune response. Ann N Y Acad Sci 772:64–76PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Williams WV, Fang Q, Von Feldt JM, Boyer JD, Luchi M, Wang B, Weiner DB (1994) Immunotherapeutic strategies targeting rheumatoid synovial T-cell receptors by DNA inoculation. Immunol Res 13:145–153PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Xiang Z, Ertl HC (1995) Manipulation of the immune response to a plasmid-encoded viral antigen by coinoculation with plasmids expressing cytokines. Immunity 2:129–135PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Xiang ZQ, Spitalnik SL, Cheng J, Erikson J, Wojczyk B, Ertl HC (1995) Immune responses to nucleic acid vaccines to rabies virus. Virology 209:569–579PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Xu D, Liew FY (1995) Protection against leishmaniasis by injection of DNA encoding a major surface glycoprotein of L. major. Immunology 84:173–176PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Yang W, Waine GJ, McManus DP (1995) Antibodies to Schistosoma japonicum (Asian bloodfluke) paramyosin induced by nucleic acid vaccination. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 212:1029–1039PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Yasutomi Y, Robinson HL, Lu S, Mustafa F, Lekutis C, Arthos J, Mullins JI, Voss G, Manson K, Wyand M et al. (1996) Simian immunodeficiency virus-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte induction through DNA vaccination of rhesus monkeys. J Virol 70:678–681PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Yokoyama M, Zhang J, Whitton JL (1996) DNA immunization: effects of vehicle and route of administration on the induction of protective antiviral immunity. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol 14:221–230PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Zarozinski CC, Fynan EF, Selin LK, Robinson HL, Welsh RM (1995) Protective CTL- dependent immunity and enhanced immunopathology in mice immunized by particle bombardment with DNA encoding an internal virion protein. J Immunol 154:4010–4017PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. G. Whalen

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations