The Physiology of Tropisms

  • Gottfried Wagner
Part of the Progress in Botany book series (BOTANY, volume 59)


The historic work of Darwin, a century ago, has set a landmark in the field of plant movements, particularly in the category of directed growth (Darwin 1896). Plants and fungi through directed growth, defined as “tropism”, respond in spatial orientation to environmental stimuli such as light, gravity, temperature and water (Poff et al. 1994). The field has been reviewed by Hensel (1986) for Progress in Botany in vol. 48; for reviews in fungi, lower and higher plants see also Konings (1995); Fukaki et al. (1996); Estelle (1996); Sievers et al. (1996).


  1. Ahmad M, Cashmore AR (1993) HY4 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana encodes a protein with characteristics of a blue-light photoreceptor. Nature 366: 163–166Google Scholar
  2. Audus IJ (1975) Geotropism in roots. In: Torrey JC, Clarkson DT (eds) The development and function of roots. Acadmic Press, London, pp 327–363Google Scholar
  3. Baluška F, Hauskrecht M, Barlow PW, Sievers A (1996a) Gravitropism of the primary root of maize: complex pattern of differential cellular growth in the cortex independent of the microtubular cytoskeleton. Planta 198: 310–318PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Baluška F, Volkmann D, Hauskrecht M, Barlow PW (1996b) Root cap mucilage and extracellular calcium as modulators of cellular growth in post-mitotic growth zones of the maize root apex. Bot Acta 109: 25–34Google Scholar
  5. Banbury GH (1959) Phototropism of lower plants. In: Ruhland W (ed) Encyclopedia of plant physiology, vol 17. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 530–578Google Scholar
  6. Berger F, Brownlee C (1994) Photopolarization of the Fucus sp. zygote by blue light involves a plasma membrane redox chain. Plant Physiol 105: 519–527PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bjorkman T, Leopold AC (1987a) Effect of inhibitors of auxin transport and of calmodulin on a gravisensing-dependent current in maize roots. Plant Physiol 84: 847–850PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Bjorkman T, Leopold AC (1987b) An electric current associated with gravity sensing in maize roots. Plant Physiol 84: 841–846PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Blaauw AH (1918) Licht und Wachstum III. Meded Landbouwhogesch Wageningen 15: 89–204Google Scholar
  10. Blancaflor EB, Hasenstein KH (1993) Organization of cortical microtubules in gravire-sponding maize roots. Planta 191: 231–237PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Blancaflor EB, Hasenstein KH (1995) Time course and auxin sensitivity of cortical microtubule reorientation in maize roots. Protoplasma 185: 72–82PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Boysen Jensen P (1928) Die phototropische Induktion in der Spitze der Avena Koleoptile. Planta 5: 464–477Google Scholar
  13. Braun M (1996) Anomalous gravitropic response of Chara rhizoids during enhanced accelerations. Planta 199: 443–450PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Braun M, Sievers A (1993) Centrifugation causes adaptation of microfilaments - studies on the transport of statoliths in gravity sensing Chara rhizoids. Protoplasma 174: 50–61PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Braun M, Sievers A (1994) Role of the microtuble cytoskeleton in gravisensing Chara rhizoids. Eur J Cell Biol 63: 289–298PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Briegleb W (1992) Some qualitative and quantitative aspects of the fast-rotating clinostat as a research tool. ASGSB Bull 5: 23–30PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Brown AH, Dahl AO, Chapman DK (1976) Morphology of Arabidopsis grown under chronic centrifugation and on the clinostat. Plant Physiol 57: 358–364PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Bruinsma J, Karssen CM, Benschop M, Van Dort JB (1975) Hormonal regulation of phototropism in the light-grown sunflower seeding, Helianthus annuus L: immobility of endogenous indoleacetic acid and inhibition of hypocotyl growth by illuminated cotyledons. J Exp Bot 26: 411–418Google Scholar
  19. Campuzano V, Galland P, Alvarez MI, Eslava AP (1996) Blue-light receptor requirement for gravitropism, autochemotropism and ethylene response in Phycomyces. Photochem Photobiol 63: 686–694PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Chen XY, Xiong YQ, Lipson ED (1993) Action spectrum for subliminal light control of adaptation in Phycomyces phototropism. Photochem Photobiol 58: 425–431PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Cholodny N (1927) Wuchshormone und Tropismen bei den Pflanzen. Biol Zentralbl 47: 604–626Google Scholar
  22. Curry GM, Gruen HE (1959) Action spectra for the positive and negative phototropism of Phycomyces sporangiophores. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 45: 797–804PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Darwin C (1896) The power of movements in plants. Appleton, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  24. Delbrück M, Shropshire W Jr (1960) Action and transmission spectra of Phycomyces. Plant Physiol 35: 194–704PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Dennison D (1979) Phototropism. In: Haupt W, Feinleib M (eds) Encyclopedia of plant physiology, vol 7. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 506–566Google Scholar
  26. Ding JP, Pickard BG (1993) Modulation of mechanosensitive calcium-selective cation channels by temperature. Plant J 3: 713–720PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Edelmann HG, Sievers A (1995) Unequal distribution of osmiophilic particles in the epidermal periplasmic space of upper and lower flanks of gravi-responding rye cole-optiles. Planta 196: 396–399PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Estelle M (1996) The ins and outs of auxin. Curr Biol 6: 1589–1591PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Evans ML (1991) Gravitropism: interaction of senstivity modulation and effector redistribution. Plant Physiol 95: 1–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Firn RD, Digby J (1980) The establishment of tropic curvatures in plants. Annu Rev Plant Physiol 31: 131–148Google Scholar
  31. Friedrich ULD, Joop O, Putz C, Willich G (1996) The slow rotating centrifuge microscope NIZEMI - a versatile instrument for terrestrial hypergravity and space microgravity research in biology and materials science. J Biotech 47: 225–238Google Scholar
  32. Fukaki H, Fujisawa H, Tasaka M (1996) How do plant shoots bend up? - The initial step to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of shoot gravitropism using Arabidopsis thaliana. J Plant Res 109: 129–137PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Fukshansky L (1993) Intracellular processing a spacially non-uniform stimulus–case study of phototropism in Phycomyces. J Photochem Photobiol B 19: 161–186Google Scholar
  34. Galland P (1991) Yearly review. Photosensory adaptation in aneural organisms. Photochem Photobiol 54: 1119–1134Google Scholar
  35. Galland P (1992) Fourty years of blue-light research and no anniversary. Photochem Photobiol 56: 847–854Google Scholar
  36. Galland P (1996) Ultraviolet killing and photoreactivation of Phycomyces spores. Microbiol Res 151: 9–17Google Scholar
  37. Galland P, Lipson ED (1985a) Action spectra for phototropic balance in Phycomyces blakesleeanus. Dependence on reference wavelength and intensity range. Photochem Photobiol 41: 323–329PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Galland P, Lipson ED (1985b) Modified action spectra of photogeotropic equilibrium in Phycomyces blakesleeanus mutants with defects in genes madA, madC, and madH. Photochem Photobiol 41: 331–335PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Galland P, Lipson ED (1987) Blue-light reception in Phycomyces phototropism: evidence for two photosystems operating in low- and high-intensity ranges. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 84: 104–108PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Galland P, Senger H (1988) Yearly review. The role of pterins in the photoreception and metabolism of plants. Photochem Photobiol 48: 811–820Google Scholar
  41. Galland P, Corrochäno LM, Lipson ED (1989) Subliminal light control of dark adaptation kinetics in Phycomyces phototropisms. Photochem Photobiol 449: 485–492Google Scholar
  42. Galland P, Amon S, Senger H, Russo VEA (1995) Blue light reception in Phycomyces–red light sensitization in madC mutants. Bot Acta 108: 344–350Google Scholar
  43. Gardner G, Shaw S, Wilkins MB (1 a 974) IAA transport during the phototropic responses of intact Zea and Avena coleoptiles. Planta 121: 237–251Google Scholar
  44. Gehring CA, Williams DA, Cody SH, Parish RW (1990) Phototropism and geotropism in maize coleoptiles are spatially correlated with increases in cytosolic free calcium. Nature 345: 528–530PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Gil P, Liu Y, Orbovic V, Verkanp E, Poff KL, Green PJ (1994) Characterization of the auxin-inducible SAUR-AC1 gene for use as a molecular genetic tool in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol 104: 777–784PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Hager A (1996) Properties of a blue-light-absorbing photoreceptor kinase localized in the plasma membrane of the coleoptile tip region. Planta 198: 294–299PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Hager A, Birch M (1993) Blue-light-induced phosphorylation of a plasma-membrane protein from phototropically sensitive tips of maize coleoptiles. Planta 189: 567–576Google Scholar
  48. Hager A, Birch M, Bazlen I (1993) Redox dependence of the blue-light-induced phosphorylation of a 100-kDa protein on isolated plasma membranes from tips of coleoptiles. Planta 190: 120–126Google Scholar
  49. Hasegawa K, Togo S (1989) Phototropism in hypocotyls of radish. VII. Involvement of the growth inhibitors, raphanusol A and B in phototropism of radish hypocotyls. J Plant Physiol 135: 110–113Google Scholar
  50. Hasegawa K, Yamada K (1992) Even distribution of endogenous indole-3-acetic acid in phototropism of pea epicotyls. J Plant Physiol 139: 455–459Google Scholar
  51. Haupt W (1996) Plant movements. In: Salisbury FB (ed) Units, symbols and terminology for plant physiology. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp 120–125Google Scholar
  52. Hayami J, Kadota A, Wada M (1992) Intracellular dichroic orientation of the blue light- absorbing pigment and the blue-absorption band of the red-absorbing form of phytochrome responsible for phototropism of the fern Adiantum protonemata. Photochem Photobiol 56: 661–666Google Scholar
  53. Heathcote DG (1981) The geotropic reaction and statolith movements following geo-stimulation of mung bean hypocotyls. Plant Cell Environ 4: 131–140Google Scholar
  54. Hensel W (1986) Gravi- and phototropism of higher plants. Prog Bot 48: 205–214Google Scholar
  55. Hillman SK, Wilkins MB (1982) Gravity perception in decapped roots of Zea mays. Planta 155: 267–271Google Scholar
  56. Hodick D (1994) Negative gravitropism in Char a protonemata - a model integrating the opposite gravitropic responses of protonemata and rhizoids. Planta 195: 43–49PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Hoshisakoda M, Usui K, Ishizuka K, Kosemura S, Yamamura S, Hasegawa K (1994) Structure-activity relationships of benzoxazolinones with respect to auxin-induced growth and auxin-binding protein. Phytochemistry 37: 297–300Google Scholar
  58. Iino M (1991) Mediation of tropisms by lateral translocation of endogenous indole-3- acetic acid in maize coleoptiles. Plant Cell Environ 14: 279–286Google Scholar
  59. Iino M (1995) Gravitropism and phototropism of maize coleoptiles: evaluation of the Cholodny-Went theory through effects of auxin application and decapitation. Plant Cell Physiol 36: 361–367Google Scholar
  60. Iino M, Briggs WR (1984) Growth distribution during first positive phototropic curvature of maize coleoptiles. Plant Cell Environ 7: 97–104Google Scholar
  61. Imagawa K, Toko K, Ezaki S, Hayashi K, Yamafuji K (1991) Electrical potentials during gravitropism in bean epicotyls. Plant Physiol 97: 193–196PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Iseki M, Wada S (1995) Action spectrum in the ultraviolet region for phototropism of Bryopsis rhizoids. Plant Cell Physiol 36: 1033–1040Google Scholar
  63. Iseki M, Mizukami M, Wada S (1995a) Positive phototropism in the thallus of Bryopsis plumosa. Plant Cell Physiol 36: 971–976Google Scholar
  64. Iseki M, Mizukami M, Wada S (1995b) Negative phototropism in the rhizoid of Bryopsis plumosa. Plant Cell Physiol 36:977–982Google Scholar
  65. Ishikawa H, Evans ML (1993) The role of the distal elongation zone in the response of maize roots to auxin and gravity. Plant Physiol 102: 1203–1210PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Jackson MB, Barlow PW (1981) Root geotropism and the role of growth regulators from the cap: a re-examination. Plant Cell Environ 4: 107–123Google Scholar
  67. James SA, Bell DT (1996) Leaf orientation in juvenile Eucalyptus camaldulensis. Aust J Bot 44: 139–156Google Scholar
  68. Johnsson A, Brown AH, Chapman DK, Heathcote D, Karlsson C (1995) Gravitropic responses of the Avena coleoptile in space and on clinostats. 2. Is reciprocity valid? Physiol Plant 95: 34–38PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Juniper BE, Groves S, Landau-Schachar B, Audus LJ (1966) Root cap and the perception of gravity. Nature 209: 93–94Google Scholar
  70. Kiss JZ (1994) The response to gravity is correlated with the number of statoliths in Chara rhizoids. Plant Physiol 105: 937–940PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Kiss JZ, Wright JB, Caspar T (1996) Gravitropism in roots of intermediate-starch mutants of Arabidopsis. Physiol Planta 97: 237–244Google Scholar
  72. Konings H (1968) Significance of the root cap for geotropism. Acta Bot Neerl 17: 203–221Google Scholar
  73. Konings H (1995) Gravitropism of roots: an evaluation of progress during the last three decades. Acta Bot Neerl 44: 195–223Google Scholar
  74. Konjevic R, Steinitz B, Poff KL (1989) Dependence of the phototropic response of Arabidopsis thaliana on fluence rate and wavelength. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 86: 9876–9880PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Konjevic R, Khurana JP, Poff KL (1992) Analysis of multiple photoreceptor pigments for phototropism in a mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana. Photochem Photobiol 55: 789–792PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Kubo H, Mihara H (1996) Effects of microbeam light on growth and phototropism of Pilobolus crystallinus sporangiophores. Mycoscience 37: 31–34Google Scholar
  77. Kusnetsov OA, Hasenstein KH (1996) Intracellular magnetophoresis of amyloplasts and induction of root curvature. Planta 198: 87–94Google Scholar
  78. Kutschera U, Hoss R (1995) Mobilization of starch after submergence of air-grown rice coleoptiles. Implications for growth and gravitropism. Bot Acta 108: 266–269Google Scholar
  79. Leitz G, Schnepf E, Greulich KO (1995) Micromanipulation of statoliths in gravity-sensing Char a rhizoids by optical tweezers. Planta 197: 278–288PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Li Y, Hagen G, Guilfoyle TJ (1991) An auxin-responsive promoter is differentially induced by auxin gradients during tropisms. Plant Cell 3: 1167–1175PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Liscum E, Briggs WR (1995) Mutations in the nphl locus of Arabidopsis disrupt the perception of phototropic stimuli. Plant Cell 7: 473–485PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Liscum E, Briggs WR (1996) Mutations of Arabidopsis in potential transduction and response components of the phototropic signaling pathway. Plant Physiol 112: 291–296PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Liscum E, Young JC, Poff KL, Hangarter RP (1992) Genetic separation of phototropism and blue light inhibition of stem elongation. Plant Physiol 100: 267–271PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Martinrojas V, Greiner H, Wagner T, Fukshansky L, Cerdd-Olmedo E (1995) Specific tropism caused by ultraviolet C radiation in Phy corny ces. Planta 197: 63–68Google Scholar
  85. Meske V, Hartmann E (1995) Reorganization of microfilaments in protonemal tip cells of the moss Ceratodon purpureus during the phototropic response. Protoplasma 188: 59–69PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Meske V, Ruppert V, Hartmann E (1996) Structural basis for the red light induced repolarization of tip growth in caulonema cells of Ceratodon purpureus. Protoplasma 192: 189–198Google Scholar
  87. Mirza JI, Olsen GM, Iversen TH, Maher EP (1984) The growth and gravitropic responses of wild-type and auxin-resistant mutants of Arabidposis thaliana. Physiol Plant 60: 516–522Google Scholar
  88. Monzer J (1995) Actin filaments are involved in cellular graviperception of the basidio-mycete Flammulina velutipes. Eur J Cell Biol 66: 151–156PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Monzer J (1996) Cellular graviperception in the basidiomycete Flammulina velutipes - can the nuclei serve as fungal statoliths? Eur J Cell Biol 71: 216–220PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Moore R, Maimon E (1993) Signal transmission during gravitropic curvature of primary roots of Zea mays. Plant Cell Environ 16: 105–108Google Scholar
  91. Moore D, Hock B, Greening JP, Kern VD, Frazer LN, Monzer J (1996) Gravimorphogenesis in agarics. Mycol Res 100: 257–273PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Orbovic V, Poff KL (1993) Growth distribution during phototropism of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. Plant Physiol 103: 157–163PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Paál A (1919) Ober phototropische Reizleitungen. Jahrb Wiss Bot 58:406–458Google Scholar
  94. Palmer JM, Short TW, Briggs WR (1993a) Correlation of blue light-induced phosphorylation to phototropism in Zea mays L. Plant Physiol 102: 1219–1225Google Scholar
  95. Palmer JM, Short TW, Gallagher S, Briggs WR (1993b) Blue light-induced phosphorylation of a plasma membrane-associated protein in Zea mays L. Plant Physiol 102: 1211–1218PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Palmer JM, Warpeha KMF, Briggs WR (1996) Evidence that zeaxanthin is not the photo-receptor for phototropism in maize coleoptiles. Plant Physiol 110: 1323–1328PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Perbal G, Driss-Ecole D (1994) Sensitivity to gravistimulus of lentil seedling roots grown in space during the IML-1 mission of Spacelab. Physiol Plant 90: 313–318PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Pickard BG (1985) Roles of hormones, protons and calcium in geotropism. In: Pharis E, Reid D (eds) Encyclopedia of plant physiology, vol 11. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 193–281Google Scholar
  99. Pickard BG, Ding JP (1993) The mechanosensory calcium-selective ion channel–key component of a plasmalemmal control center. Aust J Plant Physiol 20: 439–459PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Piening CJ, Poff KL (1988) Mechanism of detecting light direction in first positive phototropism in Zea mays L. Plant Cell Environ 11: 143–146Google Scholar
  101. Pilet PE (1982) Importance of the cap cells in maize root gravireaction. Planta 156: 95–96Google Scholar
  102. Poff KL, Martin HV (1989) Site of graviperception in roots: a reexamination. Physiol Plant 76: 451–455PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Poff KL, Janoudi A-K, Rosen ES, Orbovic V, Konjevic R, Fortin M-C, Scott TK (1994) The physiology of tropism. In: Meyerowitz EM, Somerville CR (eds) Arabidopsis. Cold Spring Harbor Lab Press, Cold Spring Harbor, pp 639–664Google Scholar
  104. Pohl U, Russo VEA (1984) Phototropism: In: Colombetti G, Lenci F (eds) Membranes and sensory transduction. Plenum Press, New York, pp 231–329Google Scholar
  105. Poppe C, Hangarter RP, Sharrock RA, Nagy F, Schäfer E (1996) The light-induced reduction of the gravitropic growth orientation of seedlings of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh is a photomorphogenic response mediated synergistically by the far-red absorbing forms of phytochromes A and B. Planta 199: 511–514PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Quiñones MA, Zeiger E (1994) A putative role of the xantophyll zeaxanthin in blue light photoreception of corn coleoptiles. Science 264: 558–561Google Scholar
  107. Quiñones MA, Lu Z, Zeiger E (1996) Close correspondence between the action spectra for the blue light responses of the guard cell and coleoptile chloroplasts, and the spectra for blue light-dependent stomata opening and coleoptile phototropism. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93: 2224–2228PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Reymond P, Short TW, Briggs WR, Poff KL (1992) Light-induced phosphorylation of a membrane protein plays an early role in signal transduction for phototropism in Arabidopsis thaliana. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 89: 4718–4721PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Ritter S, Koller D (1994) Movements of the trifoliate leaf of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) during a simulated day, and their consequences for solar tracking fidelity and interception of solar radiation. J Plant Physiol 143: 64–71Google Scholar
  110. Robinson DG (1996) Osmiophilic particles at the plasma membrane: what role do they play in extension growth? Bot Acta 109: 81–83Google Scholar
  111. Rüdiger W, Briggs WR (1995) Involvement of thiol groups in blue-light-induced phosphorylation of a plasma membrane-associated protein from coleoptile tips of Zea mays L. Z Naturforsch [C] 50: 231–234Google Scholar
  112. Sack FD (1991) Plant gravity sensing. Int Rev Cytol 127: 193–252PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Salomon M, Zacherl M, Rüdiger W (1996) Changes in blue-light-dependent protein phosphorylation during the early development of etiolated oat seedlings. Planta 199: 336–342PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Schmidt W (1984) Bluelight physiology. Bio Science 34: 698–704Google Scholar
  115. Shi L, Miller I, Moore R (1993) Immunocytochemical localization of indole-3-acetic acid in primary roots of Zea mays. Plant Cell Environ 16: 967–973Google Scholar
  116. Sievers A, Sondag C, Trebacz K, Hejnowicz Z (1995) Gravity-induced changes in intracellular potentials in statocytes of cress roots. Planta 197: 392–398PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Sievers A, Buchen B, Hodick D (1996) Gravity sensing in tip-growing cells. Trends Plant Sci 1: 273–279PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Sinclair W, Oliver I, Mäher P, Tewavas A (1996) The role of calmodulin in the gravitropic response of the Arabidopsis thaliana agr-3 mutant. Planta 199: 343–351PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Sineshchekov AV, Lipson ED (1992) Effect of calcium on dark adaptation in Phycomyces phototropism. Photochem Photobiol 56: 667–675PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Slocum RD, Roux SJ (1983) Cellular and subcellular localization of calcium in gravistimulated oat coleoptiles and its possible significance in the establishment of tropic curvature. Planta 157: 481–492Google Scholar
  121. Stinemetz C, Takahashi H, Suge H (1996) Characterization of hydrotropism: the timing of perception and signal movement from the root cap in the agravitropic pea mutant Ageotropum. Plant Cell Physiol 37: 800–805PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Takahashi H (1994) Hydrotropism and its interaction with gravitropism in roots. Plant Soil 165: 301–308Google Scholar
  123. Takahashi H, Scott TK (1991) Hydrotropism and its interaction with gravitropism in maize roots. Plant Physiol 96: 558–564PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Takahashi H, Scott TK (1993) Intensity of hydrostimulation for the induction of root hydrotropism and its sensing by the root cap. Plant Cell Environ 16: 99–103PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. Takahashi H, Brown CS, Dreschel TW, Scott TK (1992) Hydrotropism in pea roots in a porous-tube water delivery system. Hortic Sci 27: 430–437Google Scholar
  126. Takano M, Takahashi H, Hirasawa T, Suge H (1995) Hydrotropism in roots - sensing of a gradient in water potential by the root cap. Planta 197: 410–413Google Scholar
  127. Thimann KV, Curry GM (1961) Phototropism. In: McElroy WD, Glass B (eds) Light and life. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, pp 646–672Google Scholar
  128. Togo S, Hasegawa K (1991) Phototropic stimulation does not induce unequal distribution of indole-3-acetic acid in maize coleoptiles. Physiol Plant 81: 555–557Google Scholar
  129. Totland O (1996) Flower heliotropism in an alpine population of Ranunculus acris (Ranunculaceae): effects on flower temperature, insect visitation, and seed production. Am J Bot 83: 452–458Google Scholar
  130. Trewavas A, Knight M (1994) Mechanical signalling, calcium and plant form. Plant Mol Biol 26: 1329–1341PubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. Trewavas T, Briggs WR, Bruinsma J, Evans ML, Firn R, Hertel R, Lino M, Jones AM, Leopold AC, Pilet PE, Poff KL, Roux SJ, Salisbury FB, Scott TK, Sievers A, Zeischaug HE, Wayne R (1992) Forum: what remains of the Cholodny-Went theory? Plant Cell Environ 15: 759–794Google Scholar
  132. Vierstra R, Poff KL (1981) Role of carotenoids in the phototropic response of corn seedlings. Plant Physiol 68: 798–801PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. Volkmann D, Tewinkel M (1996a) Gravisensitivity of cress roots - investigations of threshold values under specific conditions of sensor physiology in microgravity. Plant Cell Environ 19: 1195–1202PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Volkmann D, Tewinkel M (1996b) Graviresponse of cress roots under varying gravitational forces. J Biotech 47: 253–259Google Scholar
  135. Volkmann D, Behrens HM, Sievers A (1986) Development and gravity sensing of cress roots under microgravity. Naturwissenschaften 73: 438–441PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Wada M, Sei H (1994) Phytochrome-mediated phototropism in Adiantum cuneatum young leaves. J Plant Res 107: 181–186Google Scholar
  137. Wagner G (1996) Macromolecular crystal growth in microgravity: bacteriorhodopsin. ESA Symp Proc 385: 235–238Google Scholar
  138. Walker LM, Sack FD (1995) Microfilament distribution in protonemata of the moss Ceratodon. Protoplasma 189: 235–237Google Scholar
  139. Warpeha KMF, Kaufman LS, Briggs WR (1992) A flavoprotein may mediate the blue light-activated binding of guanosine-S′-triphosphate to isolate plasma membranes of Pisum sativum L. Photochem Photobiol 55: 595–603Google Scholar
  140. Wayne R, Staves MP, Leopold AC (1990) Gravity-dependent polarity of cytoplasmic streaming in Nitellopsis. Protoplasma 155: 43–57PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Weisenseel MH, Becker HF, Ehlgötz JG (1992) Growth, gravitropism and endogenous ion currents of cress roots (Lepidium sativum L.) Plant Physiol 100: 16–25PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Went FW (1928) Wuchsstoff und Wachstum. Reel Trav Bot Neerl 25: 1–116Google Scholar
  143. Went FW, Thimann KV (1937) Phytohormones. Macmillan, New YorkGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gottfried Wagner
    • 1
  1. 1.Membran- und Bewegungsphysiologie Botanisches Institut IJustus-Liebig-UniversitätGiessenGermany

Personalised recommendations