Urinary System pp 451-456 | Cite as

Phosphate Urolithiasis, Rat

  • Saeed R. Khan
Part of the Monographs on Pathology of Laboratory Animals book series (LABORATORY)


When magnesium phosphate calculi occur in the urinary bladder or ureters, they are usually less than 1 mm in diameter and appear white and chalky after air-drying (Robbins et al. 1965). Urinary magnesium phosphate calculi up to 1 cm in length may occur in association with foreign bodies implanted in the bladder (Vermeulen et al. 1950). Calcium phosphate calculi within renal tubules appear as granular deposits within the cut surface of the kidney. If the condition is severe, it can be visualized as a semicircular zone of mineralization at the corticomedullary junction (Fig. 380) (Woodard 1971). Compensatory renal hypertrophy can cause increased kidney weight, a lobulated kidney outline, and irregularity of the capsular surface (Fig. 381).


Renal or urinary bladder calculosis renal intratubular calculosis; nephrolithiasis nutritional intra tubular calculosis intranephronic calculosis of nutritional origin 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Bunce GE, Li BW. Price NO. Greenstreet R (1974) Distribution of calcium and magnesium in rat kidney homogenate fractions accompanying magnesium deficiency induced nephrocalcinosis. Exp Mol Pathol 21:16–28PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bushinsky DA. Favus MJ (1988) Mechanisms of hypercalciuria in genetic hypercalciuric rats. Inherited defect in intestinal calcium transport.J Clin Invest 82: 1585–1591PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bushinsky DA. Kim M. Sessler NE. Nakagawa Y. Coe FL (1994) Increased urinary supersaturation and kidney calcium content in genetic hypercalciuric rats. Kidney Int 45:58–65PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bushinsky DA. Grynpas MD. Nilsson EL. Nakagawa Y. Coe FL (1995) Stone formation in genetic hypercalciuric rats. Kidney Int 48:1705–1713PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chow FHC, Taton GF, Boulay JP, Lewis LD, Remmenga EE, Hamar DW (1980) Effect of dietary calcium. magnesium. and phophorus on phosphate urolithiasis in rats. Invest Urol 17 :273–276Google Scholar
  6. Earley LE. Gottschalk CW (eds) (1979) Strauss and Welt’s diseases of the kidney. vol II. 3rd edn. Little Brown. BostonGoogle Scholar
  7. Geary CPM, Cousins FB (1969) An oestrogen-linked nephrocalcinosis in rats. Br J Exp Pathol 50:507–515PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Hennis HL. Hennigar GR, Greene WB. Hilton CW Spector M (1982) Intratubular calcium phosphate deposition in acute analgesic nephropathy in rabbits. Am J Pathol 106 :356–363Google Scholar
  9. Jones TC, Hunt RD (1983) Veterinary pathology, 5th edn. Lea and Febinger. PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  10. Khan SR, Hackett RL (1987) Urolithogenesis of mixed foreign body stones. J Urol 138:1321–1328PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Khan SR, Hackett RL (1991) Retention of calcium oxalate crystals in renal tubules. Scan Microsc 5:707–712Google Scholar
  12. Khan SR, Adair JH, Morrone AA, Latorre GP (1994) Calcium phosphate deposition in rat kidneys. In: Brown PW. Constantz B (eds) Hydroxyapatite and related materials. CRC Press, Boca Raton. pp 325–329Google Scholar
  13. Kim M, Sessler NE, Tembe V, Favus MJ, Bushinsky DA (1993) Response of genetic hypercalciuric rats to low calcium diet. Kidney Int 43: 189–196PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kok DJ. Khan SR (1994) Calcium oxalate nephrolithiasis, a free or fixed particle disease. Kidney Int 46:847–854PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lewis LD, Chow FHC. Taton GF. Hamar DW (1971) Effect of various dietary mineral concentrations on the occurrence of feline urolithiasis. J Am Vet Med Assoc 172:559–563Google Scholar
  16. Packett LV. Lineberger RO. Jackson HD (1968) Mineral studies in ovine phosphatic urolithiasis. J Anim Sci 27:1716–1721PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Robbins JD, Oltjen RR, Cabell CA, Dolnick EH (1965) Influence of varying levels of dietary minerals on the development of urolithiasis, hair growth, and weight gains in rats. J Nutr 85:355–361PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Schiebler TH, Danner KG (1978) The effect of sex hormones on the proximal tubules in the rat kidney. Cell Tissue Res 192:527–549PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Snell KC (1967) Renal disease of the rat. In: Cotchin E, Roe FJC (eds) Pathology of laboratory rats and mice. Davis, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  20. Stonard MD, Samuels DM, Lock EA (1984) The pathogenesis and effect on renal function of nephrocalcinosis induced by different diets in female rats. Food Chern Toxicol 22:139–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Vermeulen CW, Grove WJ, Goetz R, Ragins HD, Correll NO (1950) Experimental urolithiasis. I. Development of calculi upon foreign bodies surgically introduced into bladders of rats. J Urol 64:541–548PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Woodard JC (1971) A morphologic and biochemical study of nutritional nephrocalcinosis in female rats fed semipurified diets. Am J Pathol 65:253–268PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Woodard JC, Jee WSS (1984) Effects of dietary calcium, phosphorus and magnesium on intranephronic calcinosis in rats. J Nutr 114:2331–2338Google Scholar
  24. Zalups RK, Haase P (1983) The effects of parathyroidectomy on the development of nephrocalcinosis in rats fed phosphate-supplemented and -unsupplemented diets containing alpha protein. Am J Pathol 113:107–111PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Saeed R. Khan

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations