Seismic Monitoring and Eruption Forecasting of Volcanoes: A Review of the State-of-the-Art and Case Histories

  • S. R. McNutt


Seismology is an important and effective tool for monitoring volcanoes and forecasting eruptions. In the last two decades, improvements in computerized acquisition and analysis systems, and more precise and higher quality data, have lead to significant scientific advances as well as a number of successful forecasts. Well-monitored volcanoes have six or more local seismic stations (1–15 km) and several regional stations (30–200 km), which are able to detect volcanic earthquakes of M = 0 to 1 and larger. Recording of several years of background seismicity is important to establish a baseline for evaluation of possible precursors. Four main types of events are recorded: high-frequency earthquakes, low-frequency earthquakes, explosion earthquakes, and volcanic tremor, although terminology varies considerably and there is no consensus about physical processes in all cases. Source mechanisms may include shear failure, tensile failure, and active and passive fluid involvement (e.g., resonance) in both linear and nonlinear processes. Volcanic earthquakes generally (1) occur in swarms as opposed to tectonic mainshock-aftershock sequences; (2) have smaller maximum sizes (typically M < 5) than earthquakes associated with tectonic structures; (3) include many events with similar waveforms; (4) have high b-values; (5) increase in numbers before eruptions; and (6) occur beneath or near the site of eruption.

Studies of eight case histories (Mount St. Helens 1980, Izu-Oshima 1986, Ito-oki 1989; Redoubt 1989–1990, Unzen 1991, Pinatubo 1991, Spurr 1992, and Galeras 1993) and summary information on several hundred other eruptions reveal a generic volcanic earthquake swarm consisting of some or all of the following components: (1) background; (2) swarms of high-frequency events; (3) relative quiescence after the peak rate of seismicity; (4) low-frequency events; (5) volcanic tremor; (6) eruption; and (7) deep earthquakes following eruption. This sequence reflects systematic changes in locations and dominant physical processes. Moderate and large earthquakes (M > 5) occur at large volcanic structures such as calderas or in association with large deformations such as sector collapses; some of these earthquakes are large enough to produce substantial shaking hazards nearby. Swarms of volcanic earthquakes have log-normally distributed durations with a mean of 5 days. Swarms of high-frequency earthquakes last longer and have a higher false alarm rate, whereas swarms of low-frequency events and tremor are shorter, and more often lead to eruptions. The seismic expressions of intrusions and extrusions are similar, so false alarms may never be completely eliminated. Intensive monitoring for 3 to 6 months or more after an eruption is recommended because additional eruptions may occur with little or no additional precursors.


Earthquake Swarm Seismic Monitoring Volcanic Tremor Large Eruption Geol Surv 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abe K (1979) Magnitude of major volcanic earthquakes of Japan 1901–1925. J Fac Sci Hokkaido Univ 6: 201–212Google Scholar
  2. Abe K (1992) Seismicity of the caldera-making eruption of Mount Katmai, Alaska in 1912. Bull Seis Soc Am 82: 175–191Google Scholar
  3. Aki K Koyanagi RY (1981) Deep volcanic tremor and magma ascent mechanism under Kilauea Hawaii. J Geophys Res 86: 7095–7110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alaska Volcano Observatory (1993) Mt Spurr’s 1992 eruptions. Eos Trans Am Geophys Union 74: 217, 221–222Google Scholar
  5. Aramaki S Hayakawa Y Fujii T Nakamura K Fukuoka T (1986) The October 1983 eruption of Miyakejima volcano. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 29: 203–229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barberi F Bertagnini A Landi P Principe C (1992) A review on phreatic eruptions and their precursors. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 52: 231–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Benoit J McNutt SR (1993) Volcanic earthquake swarm durations. Eos Trans Am Geophys Union 74; 43 Suppl p 648Google Scholar
  8. BGVN (Bull Global Volc Network) (1991) vol 16 no 7 (Sabancaya)Google Scholar
  9. BGVN (Bull Global Volc Network) (1992) vol 17 no 3 (White Island)Google Scholar
  10. BGVN (Bull Global Volc Network) (1993) vol 18 no 8 (Arenal)Google Scholar
  11. BGVN (Bull Global Volc Network) (1994) vol 19 no 8 (Rabaul)Google Scholar
  12. Bjornsson A Johnsen G Sigurdsson S Thorbergsson G (1979) Rifting of the plate boundary in North Iceland 1975–1978. J Geophys Res 84: 3029–3038CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Brandsdottir E Einarsson P (1979) Seismic activity associated with the September 1977 deflation of the Krafla central volcano in northeast Iceland. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 6: 197–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. BVE (Bull of Volc Eruptions) (1985) Miyakejima report. Annual report of the world volcanic eruptions in 1982, Volcanological Soc Japan no 22Google Scholar
  15. BVE (Bull of Volc Eruptions) (1985) Rabaul report. Annual report of the world volcanic eruptions in 1982 Volcanological Soc Japan no 22Google Scholar
  16. BVE (Bull of Volc Eruptions) (1987) Gorely report. Annual report of the world volcanic eruptions in 1984 Volcanological Soc Japan no 24Google Scholar
  17. BVE (Bull of Volc Eruptions) (1988) Rabaul report. Annual report of the world volcanic eruptions in 1985 Volcanological Soc Japan no 25Google Scholar
  18. Chouet BA (1992) A seismic model for the source of long-period events and harmonic tremor In: Gasparini P Scarpa R Aki K (eds) Volcanic Seismology. Springer Berlin Heidelberg New York pp 133–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Crosson R Endo ET (1981) Focal mechanisms of earthquakes related to the 29 November 1975 Kalapana Hawaii earthquake: the effect of structure models. Bull Seis Soc Am 71: 713–729Google Scholar
  20. De la Cruz-Reyna S (1991) Poisson-distributed patterns of explosive eruptive activity. Bull Volcanol 54:57–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Eaton JP Murata KJ (1960) How volcanoes grow. Science 132: 925–938CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Eichelberger JC Hildreth W Papike JJ (1991) The Katmai scientific drilling project surface phase: investigation of an exceptional igneous system. Geophys Res Lett 18: 1513–1516CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Einarsson P (1986) Seismicity along the eastern margin of the North American Plate In: Vogt PR Tucholke BE (eds) The geology of North America volume M, The Western North Atlantic Region. Geological Society of America, Boulder, pp 99–116Google Scholar
  24. Endo ET Murray T (1991) Real-time seismic amplitude measurement (RSAM): a volcano monitoring and prediction tool. Bull Volcanol 53: 533–545CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Endo ET Malone SD Noson LL Weaver CS (1981) Locations magnitudes and statistics of the March 20-May 18 earthquake sequence. US Geol Surv Prof Pap 1250 US Govt. Printing Office, Washington DC: 93–107Google Scholar
  26. Endo ET Murray TL Power JA (1996) A comparison of pre-eruption real-time seismic amplitude measurements for eruptions at Mount St Helens Redoubt volcano Mt Spurr and Mount Pinatubo. In: Newhall CG Punongbayan RS (eds) Fire and Mud: eruptions and lahars of Mount Pinatubo, Philippines. Quezon City, Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology, and Seattle, Univ. of Washington Press. 1130 ppGoogle Scholar
  27. Fedotov SA Tokarev PI Bobkov MF Kuzin IP (1967) Earthquakes in Kamchatka and Komandorskie Islands according to the data of detailed seismological observations In: Earthquakes in USSR in 1964, Nauk SSSR, Moscow pp 166–184 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  28. Fehler M (1983) Observations of volcanic tremor at Mount St Helens volcano. J Geophys Res 88: 3476–3484CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ferrucci F (1995) Seismic monitoring at active volcanoes In: McGuire WJ Kilburn CRJ Murray JB (eds) Monitoring active volcanoes: strategies procedure and techniques University College London Press, London, pp 60–92Google Scholar
  30. Filson J Simkin T Leu L (1973) Seismicity of a caldera collapse: Galapogos Islands 1968. J Geophys Res 78: 8591–8622CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Finch RH (1949) Volcanic tremor (Part I). Bull Seis Soc Am 39: 73–78Google Scholar
  32. Fischer TP Morrissey MM Calvache V ML Gomez M D Torres C R Stix J Williams SN (1994) Correlations between S02 flux and long-period seismicity at Galeras volcano. Nature 368: 135–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Geophysics Program University of Washington (1980) Eruption of Mount St Helens. Nature 285: 529–531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Gorelchik VI Zobin VM Tokarev PI (1990) Volcanic earthquakes of Kamchatka: classification nature of source and spatio-temporal distribution. Tectonophysics 180: 255–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Gorshkov GS (1959) Gigantic eruption of the volcano Bezymianny. Bull Volcanol 20: 77–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Gorshkov GS Dubik YM (1969) Gigantic directed blast at Shiveluch volcano (Kamchatka). Bull Volcanol 34: 261–288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Gronvold K Larsen G Einarsson P Thorarinsson S Saemundsson K (1983) The Hekla eruption 1980–1981. Bull Volcanol 46–4: 349–363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gudmundsson A Oskarsson N Gronvold K Saemundsson K Sigurdsson O Stefansson R Gisalson SR Einarsson P Brandsdottir B Larsen G Johanesson H Thordarson T (1992) The 1991 eruption of Hekla, Iceland. Bull Volcanol 54: 238–246Google Scholar
  39. Hagiwara T Iwata T (1968) Summary of the seismographic observation of Matsushiro swarm earthquakes, Tokyo Univ Earthquake Res Inst Bull 46: 485–515Google Scholar
  40. Harlow DH Power JA Laguera EP Ambubuyog G White RA Hoblitt RP (1995) Precursory seismicity and forecasting of the June 15, 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo, Philippines. In: Newhall CG Punongbayan RS (eds) Fire and Mud: eruptions and lahars of Mount Pinatubo, Philippines. Quezon City, Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology, and Seattle, Univ. of Washington Press. 1130 ppGoogle Scholar
  41. Hashimoto T Tatehata H Seino M (1989) Premonitory tremors before the 1986 eruptions of Izu-Oshima Volcano. Pap Meteor Geophys 40: 29–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hill DP Bailey RA Ryall AS (1985) Active tectonic and magmatic processes beneath Long Valley caldera eastern California: an overview. J Geophys Res 90: 11111–11120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hill DP Ellsworth WL Johnston MJS Langbein JO Oppenheimer DH Pitt AM Reasenburg PA Sorey ML McNutt SR (1990) The 1989 earthquake swarm beneath Mammoth Mountain, California: an initial look at the 4 May through 30 September activity. Bull Seis Soc Am 80: 325–339Google Scholar
  44. Hill DP Johnston MJS Langbein JO McNutt SR Miller CD Mortensen CE Pitt AM Rojstaczer S (1991) Response plans for volcanic hazards in the Long Valley caldera and Mono Craters area California. US Geol Surv Open-File Rep, US Geol Surv, Menlo Park 91–270 64 ppGoogle Scholar
  45. Hill DP Reasenberg PA Michael A Arabaz WJ et al. (1993) Seismicity remotely triggered by the magnitude 7.3 Landers, California, earthquake. Science 260: 1617–1623CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. JMA (1989) Teishi-Kaikyu Volcano, off the Izu Peninsula, Japan. SEAN Bull 14: 2–5Google Scholar
  47. Julian BR (1994) Volcanic tremor: nonlinear excitation by fluid flow. J Geophys Res 99: 11,859–11,877CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Kawakatsu H Ohminato T Ito H Kuwahara Y Kato T Tsuruga K Honda S Yomogida K (1992) Broadband seismic observation at the Sakurajima volcano, Japan. Geophys Res Lett 19: 1959–1962CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Kienle J Davies JN Miller TP Yount ME (1986) 1986 Eruption of Augustine volcano: public safety response by Alaskan volcanologists. Eos Trans Am Geophys Union 67: 582Google Scholar
  50. Klein FW Koyanagi RY Nakata JS Tanigawa WR (1987) The seismicity of Kilauea’s magma system. USGS Prof Pap 1350 US Govt. Printing Office, Washington DC: 1019–1185Google Scholar
  51. Koyanagi RY Tanigawa WR Nakata JS (1988) Seismicity associated with the eruption. In: Wolf E (ed) The Puu Oo eruption of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii; Episodes 1 through 20, January 3, 1983, through June 8, 1984. US Geol Surv Prof Pap 1463 US Govt. Printing Office, Washington DC: 183–235Google Scholar
  52. Kubotera A Mitsunami T (1980) An earthquake swarm in the northern part of the Aso caldera and migration of their foci. Tectonophysics 70: 223–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Latter J (1979) Volcanological observations at Tongariro National Park 2 Types and classification of volcanic earthquakes 1976–1978. Geophysics Division Rep No 150, Dept Sci and Ind Res Wellington 60 ppGoogle Scholar
  54. Liree L Luongo G Scandone R (1987) On the volcanological evolution of Campi Flegrei. Eos Trans Am Geophys Union 68: 226–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Linde AT Agustsson K Sacks IS Stefansson R (1993) Mechanism of the 1991 eruption of Hekla from continuous borehole strain monitoring. Nature 365: 737–740CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Lomnitz C Schulz R (1966) The San Salvador earthquake of May 3, 1965. Bull Seis Soc Am 56: 561–575Google Scholar
  57. Malone SD Endo ET Weaver CS Ramey JW (1981) Seismic monitoring for eruption prediction. US Geol Surv Prof Pap 1250 US Govt. Printing Office, Washington, DC: 803–813Google Scholar
  58. Matsumura S Ohkubo T Imoto M (1991) Seismic swarm activity in and around the Izu Peninsula preceding the volcanic eruption of July 13, 1989. J Phys Earth 39: 93–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Matumoto T (1976) Prediction of a volcanic eruption implied from seismic data. Rev Geogr Inst Panam Geogr Hist 5: 285–293Google Scholar
  60. McClelland L Simkin T Summers M Nielsen E Stein TC (1989) Global Volcanism 1975–1985. Smithsonian Inst, Washington DC 655 ppGoogle Scholar
  61. McNutt SR (1986) Observations and analysis of b-type earthquakes, explosions, and volcanic tremor at Pavlof volcano, Alaska. Bull Seis Soc Am 76: 153–175Google Scholar
  62. McNutt SR (1989) Some seismic precursors to eruptions to eruption at Pavlof volcano, Alaska, October 1973-April 1986. In: Latter JH (ed) Volcanic hazards IAVCEI proceedings in vol-canology vol 1. Springer Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 463–482Google Scholar
  63. McNutt SR (1989) Medicine Lake Highland September 1988 earthquake swarm, Cal Geol 42: 51–52Google Scholar
  64. McNutt SR (1992) Volcanic tremor. Encyclopedia of earth system science, vol 4 Academic Press San Diego pp 417–425Google Scholar
  65. McNutt SR (1994) Volcanic tremor amplitude correlated with volcano explosivity and its potential use in determining ash hazards to aviation. US Geol Surv Bull 2047: 377–385Google Scholar
  66. McNutt SR Tytgat G Power JA (1995) Preliminary analyses of volcanic tremor associated with the 1992 eruptions of Crater Peak, Mt. Spurr, Alaska. US Geol Surv Bull 2139: 161–177Google Scholar
  67. Minakami T (1960) Fundamental research for predicting volcanic eruptions (I)earthquakes and crustal deformations originating from volcanic activities. Bull Earthq Res Inst 38: 497–544Google Scholar
  68. Minakami T (1964) The 1962 eruption of Miyake-sima one of the seven Izu Islands, Japan. Bull Volcanol 27: 1–11Google Scholar
  69. Minakami T (1974) Seismology of volcanoes in Japan. In: Civetta et al. (eds) Physical Volcanology Developments in Solid Earth Geophysics vol 6. Elsevier Amsterdam pp 1–27Google Scholar
  70. Mori J McKee C Itikarai I Lowenstein P de Saint Ours P Talai B (1989) Earthquakes of the Rabaul seismo-deformational crisis September 1983 to July 1985: seismicity on a caldera ring fault. In: Latter JH (ed) Volcanic hazards IAVCEI proceedings in volcanology vol 1. Springer Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 429–462Google Scholar
  71. Mori J White R Harlow D Okubo P Power J Hoblitt R Laguerta E Lanuza L Bautista B (1996) Volcanic earthquakes following the 1991 climactic eruption of Mount Pinatubo Philippines: strong seismicity during a waning eruption. In: Newhall CG Punongbayan RS (eds) Fire and Mud: eruptions and lahars of Mount Pinatubo, Philippines. Quezon City, Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology, and Seattle, Univ. of Washington Press. 1130 ppGoogle Scholar
  72. Munoz FA Calvache ML Cortes GP Gomez DM Narvaez L Ordonez M Ortega A Torres R Silva B Williams SN Sanders CO Stix J (1993) Galeras Volcano: international workshop and eruption. Eos Trans Am Geophys Union 74: 281, 286–287Google Scholar
  73. Nakamura K (1984) Three different mechanisms for elongate distribution of shallow earthquake epicenters. US Geol Surv Open-File Rep 84–939 US Geol Surv, Menlo Park: 482–492Google Scholar
  74. Newhall CG Dzurisin D (1988) Historical unrest at large calderas of the world. US Geol Surv Bull 1855: 1–1108Google Scholar
  75. Newhall CG Endo ET (1987) Sudden seismic calm before eruptions: Illusory or real? Abstr Vol Hawaii Symp on How Volcanoes Work, Hilo, Hawaii, p 190Google Scholar
  76. Newhall CG Self S (1982) The Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI): an estimate of explosive magnitude for historical volcanism. J Geophys Res 87: 1231–1238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Ohta K Matsuwo N Yanagi T (1992) The 1990–1992 eruption of Unzen volcano. In: Yanagi T Okada H Ohta K (eds) Unzen Volcano the 1990–1992 eruption. The Nishinippon & Kyushu University Press Kyushu pp 34–37Google Scholar
  78. Okada HM (1983) Comparative study of earthquake swarms associated with major volcanic activities. In: Shimozuru D Yokoyama I (eds) Arc volcanism: physics and tectonics. Terra Scientific Pub. Co., Tokyo pp 43–61Google Scholar
  79. Okada HM Watanabe H Yamashita H Yokoyama I (1981) Seismological significance of the 1977–1978 eruptions and the magma intrusion process of Usu volcano, Hokkaido. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 9: 311–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Okada Y Yamamoto E (1991) Dyke intrusion model for the 1989 seismovolcanic activity off Ito Central, Japan. J Geophys Res 96: 10361–10376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Pinatubo Volcano Observatory Team (1991) Lessons from a major eruption: Mt Pinatubo, Philippines. Eos Trans Am Geophys Union 72: 545 552–553 555CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Power JA (1988) Seismicity associated with the 1986 eruption of Augustine volcano, Alaska. MS Thesis, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, 142 ppGoogle Scholar
  83. Power JA Lahr JC Page RA Chouet BA Stephens CD Harlow DH Murray TL Davies JN (1994) Seismic evolution of the 1989–90 eruption sequence of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 62: 69–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Power JA Murray TL Marso JN Laguerta EP (1996) Preliminary observations of seismicity at Mount Pinatubo using the Seismic Spectral Amplitude Measurement (SSAM) system May 13-June 18, 1991. In: Newhall CG Punongbayan RS (eds) Fire and Mud: eruptions and lahars of Mount Pinatubo, Philippines. Quezon City, Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology, and Seattle, Univ. of Washington Press. 1130 ppGoogle Scholar
  85. Richter CF (1958) Elementary seismology WH Freeman, San Francisco, 762 ppGoogle Scholar
  86. Rite A, Iyer HM (1981) July 1980 Mt. Hood earthquake swarm. US Geol Surv Open File Rep 81–48, Menlo Park 24 ppGoogle Scholar
  87. Savage JC Cockerham RS (1984) Earthquake swarm in Long Valley caldera, California, January 1983: evidense for dike injection. J Geophys Res 89: 8315–8324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Savage JC Cockerham RS (1987) Quasi-periodic occurrence of earthquakes in the 1978–1986 Bishop-Mammoth Lakes sequence, Eastern California. Bull Seis Soc Am 77: 1347–1358Google Scholar
  89. Sawada Y Aramaki S (1989) O-Shima report. Bull of Volc Eruptions No 26 Suppl to Bull Volcanol 51: 31–36Google Scholar
  90. Shimizu H Umakoshi K Matsuwo N Ohta K (1992) Seismological observations of Unzen volcano before and during the 1990–1992 eruption. In: Yanagi T Okada H Ohta K (eds) Unzen Volcano, the 1990–1992 eruption. The Nishinippon & Kyushu University Press, Kyushu pp 38–43Google Scholar
  91. Shimozuru D (1972) A seismological approach to the prediction of volcanic eruptions. In: The surveillance and prediction of volcanic activity. UNESCO Earth Sci Monograph No 8, Paris pp 19–45Google Scholar
  92. Simkin T (1993) Terrestrial volcanism in space and time. Annu Rev Earth Planet Sci 21: 427–452CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Simkin T Howard KA (1970) Caldera collapse in the Galapagos Islands, 1968. Science 169: 429–437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Simkin T Siebert L (1994) Volcanoes of the world, second edition. Geoscience Press, Inc., Tuscon 349 ppGoogle Scholar
  95. Smith RB Braile L (1984) Crustal structure and evolution of an explosive silicic volcanic system at Yellowstone National Park. In: Explosive volcanism: inception evolution and hazards studies in geophysics. National Academy Press, Washington DC pp 96–109Google Scholar
  96. Smith GM Ryall FD (1982) Bulletin of the Seismological Laboratory for the period January 1 to December 13, 1980: Mackay School of Mines, Univ Nevada, Reno 50 pp.Google Scholar
  97. Stephens C Chouet BA Page RA Lahr JC Power JA (1994) Seismological aspects of the 1989–1990 eruptions at Redoubt volcano, Alaska: the SSAM perspective. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 62: 153–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Swanson DA Casadevall TJ Dzurisin D Malone SD Newhall CG Weaver CS (1983) Predicting eruptions at Mount St Helens June 1980 through December 1982. Science 221: 1369–1376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Tilling RI Koyanagi RY Lipman PW Lockwood JP Moore JG Swanson DA (1976) Earthquake and related catastrophic events island of Hawaii, November 29, 1975: a preliminary report. USGS Circ 740 US Govt. Printing Office, Washington, DC. 33 ppGoogle Scholar
  100. Tryggvason E (1980) Subsidence events in the Krafla area North Iceland 1975–1979. J Geophys 47: 141–153Google Scholar
  101. Ukawa M (1993) Excitation mechanism of large amplitude volcanic tremor associated with the 1989 Ito-oki submarine eruption central, Japan. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 55: 33–50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Voight B (1988) A method for prediction of volcanic eruptions. Nature 332: 125–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Walter S Dzurisin D (1989) The September 1988 earthquake swarm at Medicine Lake volcano, northern California. Eos Trans Am Geophys Union 70: 1189Google Scholar
  104. Weaver CS Grant WC Malone SD Endo ET (1981) Post-May 18 seismicity: volcanic and tectonic implications. US Geol Surv Prof Pap 1250, US Govt. Printing Office, Washington, DC: 109–121Google Scholar
  105. White RA Harlow DH (1993) Destructive upper-crustal earthquakes of Central America since 1900. Bull Seis Soc Am 83: 1115–1142Google Scholar
  106. Wohletz KH McQueen RG (1984) Experimental studies of hydromagmatic volcanism. In: Explosive volcanism: inception evolution and hazards studies in geophysics. National Academy Press, Washington DC pp 158–169Google Scholar
  107. Wolfe E (1992) The 1991 eruptions of Mount Pinatubo, Philippines. Earthquakes Volcanoes US Govt. Printing Office, Washington, DC 23: 5–37Google Scholar
  108. WOVO (World Organization of Volcano Observatories) (1994) Directory of volcano observatories 1993–1994. WOVO/UNESCO Paris, 191 ppGoogle Scholar
  109. Wyss M (1973) Towards a physical understanding of the earthquake frequency distribution. Geophys J Royal Astron Soc 31: 341–359Google Scholar
  110. Yamaoka KY (1993) State of stress and magma movement inferred from seismic activity during 1986–1987 eruption of Izu-Oshima volcano. Abstr for the Worksh on Volcanic Disaster Prevention, Japan-US Science and Technology Agreement, Menlo Park pp 16–18Google Scholar
  111. Yamaoka K Ida Y Yamashina K Watanabe H (1989) Seismicity and its relation to the eruption of Izu-Oshima volcano on November 1987. Bull Volc Soc Jpn 34: 263–274Google Scholar
  112. Yuan ATE McNutt SR Harlow DH (1984) Seismicity and eruptive activity at Fuego volcano, Guatemala: February 1975-January 1977, J Volcanol and Geophys Res 21: 277–296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Yokoyama I Yamashita H Watanabe H Okada HM (1981) Geophysical characteristics of dacite volcanism-the 1977–1978 eruptions of Usu volcano. J Volcanol and Geophys Res 9: 335–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. R. McNutt
    • 1
  1. 1.Alaska Volcano Observatory, Geophysical InstituteUniversity of Alaska FairbanksUSA

Personalised recommendations