New Methods and Future Trends in Seismological Volcano Monitoring

  • B. A. Chouet


Volcanic processes operate over a wide range of time scales that require a variety of instruments and techniques for their study. Short-period seismology typically covers the band 0.1–1 s, while broadband seismology can extend that band to 0.1–100 s. Borehole strainmeters may be used to cover the very wide band from 0.1 s to 100 days and Global Positioning System (GPS) surveys are useful to track deformation over time scales ranging from days to decades. Arrays of three-component broadband seismographs coupled with arrays of borehole strainmeters are required to monitor the dynamics of magmatic and hydrothermal fluids prior to and during eruptions. Inversions of broadband data may be performed to image the forces operating at a source and infer the fluid pathway geometry and mass transport balance in a volcano. The accuracy of such inversions depends on the degree of resolution achieved for the volcanic structure. High-resolution tomography based on iterative inversions of seismic travel-time data can image three-dimensional structures at a scale of a few hundred meters provided adequate local short-period earthquake data are available. Hence, forces in a volcano are potentially resolvable for periods longer than a few seconds. Studies of long-period events and tremor at periods ≤ 1s offer constraints on pressure fluctuations resulting from unsteady mass transport, and observations of volcano-tectonic activity tell us about hydraulic fracturing processes, as well as brittle response of the rock matrix to stress changes induced by rapid injection and/or withdrawal of fluids. Short-period networks are routinely used to monitor, locate, and assess the source properties of volcano-tectonic earthquakes and long-period events, while small-aperture seismic antennas are required to track tremor and separate source, path, and site effects in tremor wavefields. This chapter reviews quantitative methods used in the interpretation of source processes and structures in volcanoes and discusses some of the major challenges faced by volcano seismologists in their quest to understand eruptive behavior.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abramowitz M, Segun IA (1972) Handbook of mathematical functions. Dover Publications, New York, 1046 ppGoogle Scholar
  2. Achauer U, Evans JR, Stauber DA (1988) High-resolution seismic tomography of compressional wave velocity structure at Newberry volcano, Oregon Cascade Range. J Geophys Res 93: 10135–10147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aki K (1957) Space and time spectra of stationary stochastic waves, with special reference to microtremors. Bull Earthq Res Inst Tokyo Univ 25: 415–457Google Scholar
  4. Aki K (1965) A note on the use of microseisms in determining the shallow structures of the earth’s crust. Geophysics 30: 665–666CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Aki K, Richards PG (1980) Quantitative seismology. Freeman, San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  6. Aki K, Fehler M, Das S (1977) Source mechanism of volcanic tremor: Fluid-driven crack models and their application to the 1963 Kilauea eruption. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 2: 259–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Aki K, Chouet B, Fehler M, Zandt G, Koyanagi R, Colp J, Hay RG (1978) Seismic properties of a shallow magma reservoir in Kilauea Iki by active and passive experiments. J Geophys Res 83: 2273–2282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ammon CJ, Vidale JE (1993) Tomography without rays. Bull Seismol Soc Am 83: 509–528Google Scholar
  9. Ankeny LA, Braile LW, Olsen KH (1986) Upper crustal structure beneath the Jemez Mountains Volcanic Field, New Mexico, determined by three-dimensional simultaneous inversion of seismic refraction and earthquake data. J Geophys Res 91: 6188–6198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Aster RC, Meyer RP (1988) Three-dimensional velocity structure and hypocenter distribution in the Campi Flegrei caldera, Italy. Tectonophysics 149: 195–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Benz HM, Smith RB (1984) Simultaneous inversion for lateral velocity variations and hypocenters in the Yellowstone region using earthquake and refraction data. J Geophys Res 89: 1208–1220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Benz HM, Chouet BA, Dawson PB, Lahr JC, Page RA, Hole JA (1996) Three-dimensional P and S wave velocity structure of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska. J Geophys Res 101: 8111–8128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bianchi R, Coradini A, Federico C, Giberti G, Lanciano P, Pozzi JP, Sartoris G, Scandone R (1987) Modeling of surface deformation in volcanic areas: the 1970–1972 and 1982–1984 crises of Campi Flegrei, Italy. J Geophys Res 92: 14139–14150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Borcherdt RD, Johnston MJS, Glassmoyer G (1989) On the use of volumetric strain meters to infer additional characteristics of short-period seismic radiation. Bull Seismol Soc Am 79: 1006–1023Google Scholar
  15. Bouchon M (1981) A simple method to calculate Green’s functions for elastic layered media. Bull Seismol Soc Am 71: 959–971Google Scholar
  16. Brown LD, Chapin CE, Sanford AR, Kaufman S, Oliver J (1980) Deep structure of the Rio Grande rift from seismic reflection profiling. J Geophys Res 85: 4773–4800CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Capon J (1969) High resolution frequency-wavenumber spectrum analysis. Proc IEEE 57: 1408–1418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cardaci C, Falsaperla S, Gasperini P, Lombardo G, Marzocchi W, Mulargia F (1993) Cross-correlation analysis of seismic and volcanic data at Mt Etna volcano, Italy. Bull Volcanol 55: 596–603CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Castellano M, Ferrucci F, Godano C, Imposa S, Milano G (1993) Upwards migration of seismic focii: a forerunner of the 1989 eruption of Mt Etna (Italy). Bull Volcanol 55: 357–361CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Chouet BA (1976) Source, scattering and attenuation effects on high frequency seismic waves. PhD Thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  21. Chouet B (1981) Ground motion in the near field of a fluid-driven crack and its interpretation in the study of shallow volcanic tremor. J Geophys Res 86: 5985–6016CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Chouet B (1982) Free surface displacements in the near field of a tensile crack expanding in three dimensions. J Geophys Res 87: 3868–3872CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Chouet B (1985) Excitation of a buried magmatic pipe: a seismic source model for volcanic tremor. J Geophys Res 90: 1881–1893CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Chouet B (1986) Dynamics of a fluid-driven crack in three dimensions by the finite difference method. J Geophys Res 91: 13967–13992CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Chouet B (1987) Representation of an extended seismic source in a propagator-based formalism. Bull Seismol Soc Am 77: 14–27Google Scholar
  26. Chouet B (1988) Resonance of a fluid-driven crack: radiation properties and implications for the source of long-period events and harmonic tremor. J Geophys Res 93: 4375–4400CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Chouet B (1992) A seismic model for the source of long-period events and harmonic tremor. In: Gasparini P, Scarpa R, Aki K (eds) Volcanic seismology. IAVCEI Proc in Volcanology 3. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 133–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Chouet B (1996) Long-period volcano seismicity: its source and use in eruption forecasting. Nature 380: 309–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Chouet B, Julian BR (1985) Dynamics of an expanding fluid-filled crack. J Geophys Res 90: 11187 – 11198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Chouet BA, Koyanagi RY, Aki K (1987) The origin of volcanic tremor in Hawaii. Part II: theory and discussion. In: Decker RW, Wright TL, Stauffer PH (eds) Volcanism in Hawaii. US Geol Surv Prof Pap 1350. US government printing office, Washington, pp 1259–1280Google Scholar
  31. Chouet BA, Page RA, Stephens CD, Lahr JC, Power JA (1994) Precursory swarms of long-period events at Redoubt Volcano (1989–1990), Alaska: their origin and use as a forecasting tool. In: Miller TP, Chouet BA (eds) The 1989–1990 eruptions of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska. J Vol-canol Geotherm Res 62: 95–135Google Scholar
  32. Commander KW, Prosperetti A (1989) Linear pressure waves in bubbly liquids: comparison between theory and experiments. J Acoust Soc Am 85: 732–746CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Courboulex F, Madariaga R, Sanchez-Sesma F (1991) Seismic wave and source modelling by staggered pseudo-spectral finite-differences in the velocity-stress domain. Eos (Trans Am Geophys Union) 72 No 44 (Suppl): 332Google Scholar
  34. Crosson RS, Bame DA (1985) A spherical source model for low frequency volcanic earthquakes. J Geophys Res 90: 10237–10247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Dawson PB, Evans JR, Iyer HM (1990) Teleseismic tomography of the compressional wave velocity structure beneath the Long Valley region, California. J Geophys Res 95: 11021–11050CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Del Pezzo E, Ferulano F, Giarrusso A, Martini M (1983) Seismic coda Q and scaling law of the source spectra at the Aeolian Islands, southern Italy. Bull Seismol Soc Am 73: 97–108Google Scholar
  37. Del Pezzo E, De Natale G, Scarcella G, Zollo A (1985) Qc of three component seismograms of volcanic microearthquakes at Campi Flegrei volcanic area-southern Italy. PAGEOPH 123: 683–696CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Dietel C, Chouet B, Kleinman J, De Luca G, Martini M, Milana G, Power J, Harlow D, Scarpa R (1994) Array tracking of tremor sources at Stromboli Volcano, Italy. US Geol Surv Open-File Rep 94–142: 1–86Google Scholar
  39. Dobran F, Neri A, Macedonio G (1993) Numerical simulation of collapsing volcanic columns. J Geophys Res 98: 4231–4259CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Dunkin JW (1965) Computation of modal solutions in layered, elastic media at high frequencies. Bull Seismol Soc Am 55: 335–358Google Scholar
  41. Dvorak JJ, Berrino G (1991) Recent ground movement and seismic activity in Campi Flegrei, Southern Italy: episodic growth of a resurgent dome. J Geophys Res 96: 2309–2323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Dzurisin D, Donnelly-Nolan JM, Evans JR, Walter SR (1991) Crustal subsidence, seismicity, and structure near Medicine Lake Volcano, California. J Geophys Res 96: 16319–16333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Ellsworth WL, Koyanagi RY (1977) Three-dimensional crust and mantle structure of Kilauea volcano, Hawaii. J Geophys Res 82: 5379–5394CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Evans JR, Zucca JJ (1988) Active high-resolution seismic tomography of compressional wave velocity and attenuation structure at Medicine Lake volcano, northern California Cascade Range. J Geophys Res 93: 15016–15036CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Fehler M, Aki K (1978) Numerical study of diffraction of plane elastic waves by a finite crack with application to location of a magma lens. Bull Seismol Soc Am 68: 573–598Google Scholar
  46. Fehler M, Roberts P, Fairbanks T (1988) A temporal change in coda wave attenuation observed during an eruption of Mount St Helens. J Geophys Res 93: 4367–4373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Ferrazzini V, Aki K, Chouet B (1991) Characteristics of seismic waves composing Hawaiian volcanic tremor and gas-piston events observed by a near-source array. J Geophys Res 96: 6199–6209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Fischer TP, Morrissey MM, Calvache MLV, Gomez DM, Torres RC, Stix J, Williams SN (1994) Correlation between SO2 flux and long-period seismicity at Galeras Volcano. Nature 368: 135–137CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Foulger GR, Long RE (1992) Non-double couple earthquake focal mechanisms and the accretionary tectonic cycle. In: Gasparini P, Scarpa R, Aki K (eds) Volcanic seismology. IAVCEI Proc in Volcanology 3. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 223–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Fujita E, Ida Y, Oikawa J (1995) Eigen oscillation of a fluid sphere and source mechanism of monochromatic volcanic tremor. J Volcanol Geotherm Res (in press)Google Scholar
  51. Gasperini P, Gresta S, Mulargia F (1990) Statistical analysis of seismic and eruptive activities at Mt Etna during 1978–1987. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 40: 317–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Gasperini P, Gresta S, Mulargia F, Distefano G (1992) Time and space clustering of Etna volcano earthquakes during the period May 1983-February 1987. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 53:297–307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Goldstein P (1988) Array measurements of earthquake rupture. PhD Thesis, University of California Santa Barbara, Santa BarbaraGoogle Scholar
  54. Goldstein P, Archuleta RJ (1987) Array analysis of seismic signals. Geophys Res Lett 14: 13–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Goldstein P, Archuleta RJ (1991) Deterministic frequency-wavenumber methods and direct measurements of rupture propagation during earthquakes using a dense array: theory and methods. J Geophys Res 96: 6173–6185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Goldstein P, Chouet B (1994) Array measurements and modeling of sources of shallow volcanic tremor at Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii. J Geophys Res 99: 2637–2652CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Golub GH, Reinsch C (1971) Singular value decomposition and least squares solutions. In: Wilkinson JH, Reinsch C (eds) Handbook for automatic computation, vol II. Linear algebra. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  58. Harlow FH, Amsden AA (1975) Numerical calculation of multiphase fluid flow. J Comput Phys 17: 19–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Helliker C, Wright TL (1991) The Puu Oo-Kupaianaha eruption of Kilauea. Eos (Trans Am Geophys Union) 72: 521, 526, 530Google Scholar
  60. Hill DP (1977) A model for earthquake swarms. J Geophys Res 82: 1347–1352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Hill DP (1992) Temperatures at the base of the seismogenic crust beneath Long Valley caldera, California, and the Phlegrean Fields caldera, Italy. In: Gasparini P, Scarpa R, Aki K (eds) Volcanic seismology. IAVCEI Proc in Volcanology 3. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 432–461Google Scholar
  62. Hill DP, Kissling E, Luetgert JH, Kradolfer U (1985) Constraints on the upper crustal structure of the Long Valley-Mono Craters volcanic complex, eastern California from seismic refraction measurements. J Geophys Res 90: 11135–11150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Hole JA (1992) Nonlinear high-resolution three-dimensional seismic travel time tomography. J Geophys Res 97: 6553–6562CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Iyer HM (1992) Seismological detection and delineation of magma chambers: present status with emphasis on the western USA. In: Gasparini P, Scarpa R, Aki K (eds) Volcanic seismology. IAVCEI Proc in Volcanology 3. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 299–338Google Scholar
  65. Johnston MJS, Borcherdt RD, Linde AT (1986) Short-period strain (0.1–105 s): near-source strain field for an earthquake (ML 3.2) near San Juan Bautista, California. J Geophys Res 91: 11497–11502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Jolly AD, Page RA, Power JA (1994) Seismicity and stress in the vicinity of Mount Spurr volcano, south central Alaska. J Geophys Res 99: 15305–15318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Julian BR (1994) Volcanic tremor: nonlinear excitation by fluid flow. J Geophys Res 99: 11859–11877CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Julian BR, Sipkin SA (1985) Earthquake process in the Long Valley Caldera area, California. J Geophys Res 90: 11155–11169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Kanamori H, Given JW (1982) Analysis of long-period seismic waves excited by the May 18, 1980, eruption of Mount St. Helens-a terrestrial monopole? J Geophys Res 87: 5422–5432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Kanamori H, Mori J (1992) Harmonic excitation of mantle Rayleigh waves by the 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo, Philippines. Geophys Res Lett 19: 721–724CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Kanamori H, Given JW, Lay T (1984) Analysis of seismic body waves excited by the Mount St. Helens eruption of May 18, 1980. J Geophys Res 89: 1856–1866CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Kanamori H, Ekström G, Dziewonski A, Barker JS, Sipkin SA (1993) Seismic radiation by magma injection: an anomalous seismic event near Tori Shima, Japan. J Geophys Res 98: 6511–6522CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Kanamori H, Mori J, Harkrider DG (1994) Excitation of atmospheric oscillations by volcanic eruptions. J Geophys Res 99: 21947–21961CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Keller JB, Kolodner II (1956) Damping of underwater explosion bubble oscillations. J Appl Phys 27: 1152–1161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Keller JB, Miksis M (1980) Bubble oscillations of large amplitude. J Acoust Soc Am 68: 628–633CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Kennett LN, Kerry NJ (1979) Seismic waves in a stratified half-space. Geophys J R Astron Soc 57: 557–583Google Scholar
  77. Kieffer SW (1977) Sound speed in liquid-gas mixtures: water-air and water-steam. J Geophys Res 82: 2895–2904CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Kikuchi M, Kanamori H (1991) Inversion of complex body waves-Ill. Bull Seismol Soc Am 81: 2335–2350Google Scholar
  79. Klein FW, Koyanagi RY, Nakata JS, Tanigawa WR (1987) The seismicity of Kilauea’s magma system. In: Decker RW, Wright TL, Stauffer PH (eds) Volcanism in Hawaii. US Geol Surv Prof Pap 1350. US government printing office, Washington, pp 1019–1185Google Scholar
  80. Knopoff L, Randall MJ (1970) The compensated linear-vector dipole: a possible mechanism for deep earthquakes. J Geophys Res 75: 4957–4963CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Kosloff DD, Baysal E (1982) Forward modelling by a Fourier method. Geophysics 47: 1402–1412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Koyanagi RY, Chouet B, Aki K (1987) Origin of volcanic tremor in Hawaii. Part I: compilation of seismic data from the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory, 1972 to 1985. In: Decker RW, Wright TL, Stauffer RW (eds) Volcanism in Hawaii. US Geol Surv Prof Pap 1350. US government printing office, Washington, pp 1221–1258Google Scholar
  83. Koyanagi RY, Tanigawa WR, Nakata JS (1988) Seismicity associated with the eruption. In: Wolfe EW (ed) The Puu Oo eruption of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii: episodes 1 through 20, January 3, 1983, through June 8, 1984. US Geol Surv Prof Pap 1463. US government printing office, Washington, pp 183–235Google Scholar
  84. Lahr JC, Chouet BA, Stephens CD, Power JA, Page RA (1994) Earthquake classification, location, and error analysis in a volcanic environment: implications for the magmatic system of the 1989–1990 eruptions at Redoubt Volcano, Alaska. In: Miller TP, Chouet BA (eds) The 1989–1990 eruptions of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 62: 137–151Google Scholar
  85. Lees JM, Crosson RS (1989) Tomographic inversion for three-dimensional velocity structure at Mount St. Helens using earthquake data. J Geophys Res 94: 5716–5728CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Linde AT, Agustsson K, Sacks IS, Stefansson R (1993) Mechanism of the 1991 eruption of Hekla from continuous borehole strain monitoring. Nature 365: 737–740CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Liu HS, Helmberger DV (1985) The 23:19 aftershock of the 15 October 1979 Imperial Valley earthquake: more evidence for an asperity. Bull Seismol Soc Am 75: 689–708Google Scholar
  88. Love AEH (1934) A treatise on the mathematical theory of elasticity. Cambridge University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  89. Lu NQ, Prosperetti A, Yoon SW (1990) Underwater noise emissions from bubble clouds. IEEE J Oceanic Eng 15: 275–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Madariaga R (1976) Dynamics of an expanding circular fault. Bull Seismol Soc Am 66: 639–666Google Scholar
  91. Meier GEA, Grabitz G, Jungowski WM, Witczak KJ, Anderson JS (1978) Oscillations of the supersonic flow downstream of an abrupt increase in duct cross-section. Mitteilungen aus dem Max-Planck Institut für Strömungsforschung und der Aerodynamischen Versuchsanstalt, Göttingen 65: 1–172Google Scholar
  92. Meier GEA, Szumowski AP, Selerowicz WC (1990) Self-excited oscillations in internal transonic flows. Prog Aerospace Sci 27: 145–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Mellman GR (1978) A method for waveform inversion of body-wave seismograms. PhD Thesis, California Institute of Technology, PasadenaGoogle Scholar
  94. Michelena RJ, Harris JM (1991) Tomographic traveltime inversion using natural pixels. Geophysics 56: 635–644CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Miller TP, Chouet BA (1994) The 1989–1990 eruptions of Redoubt Volcano: an introduction. In: Miller TP, Chouet BA (eds) The 1989–1990 eruptions of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska. J Vol-canol Geotherm Res 62: 1–10Google Scholar
  96. Morrissey M (1994) Magmatic fluids and long-period seismicity: a geological and fluid dynamical perspective. PhD Thesis, Arizona State University, TempeGoogle Scholar
  97. Muller G (1985) The reflectivity method: a tutorial. J Geophys 58: 153–174Google Scholar
  98. Murase T, McBirney AR (1973) Properties of some common igneous rocks and their melts at high temperatures. Geol Soc Am Bull 84: 3563–3592CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Neuberg J, Luckett R, Ripepe M, Braun T (1994) Highlights from a seismic broadband array on Stromboli Volcano. Geophys Res Lett 21: 749–752CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Nishimura T, Hamaguchi H (1993) Scaling law of volcanic explosion earthquake. Geophys Res Lett 20: 2479–2482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Okada H, Matsushima T, Hikada E (1987) Comparison of spatial autocorrelation method and frequency-wavenumber spectral method of estimating the phase velocity of Rayleigh waves in long-period microtremors. Geophys Bull Hokkaido Univ 49: 53–62Google Scholar
  102. Okamura AT, Dvorak JJ, Koyanagi RY, Tanigawa WR (1988) Surface deformation during dike propagation. In: Wolfe EW (ed) The Puu Oo eruption of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii: episodes 1 through 20, January 3, 1983, through June 8, 1984. US Geol Surv Prof Pap 1463. US government printing office, Washington, pp 165–181Google Scholar
  103. O’Neill ME, Hill DP (1979) Causal absorption: its effect on synthetic seismograms computed by the reflectivity method. Bull Seismol Soc Am 69: 17–25Google Scholar
  104. Ortiz R, Correig AM, Diez JL, Munoz ML (1992) Apparent variation of coda Q in Phlegrean Fields during the Bradyseismic crisis of 1982–1984. In: Gasparini P, Scarpa R, Aki K (eds) Volcanic seismology. IAVCEI Proc in Volcanology 3. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 516–532Google Scholar
  105. Paige CC, Saunders MA (1982) LSQR: An algorithm for sparse linear equations and sparse least squares. Trans Math Software 8: 43–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Patan D, Caltabiano T, Del Pezzo E, Gresta S (1992) Time variation of b and Qc at Mt Etna (1981–1987). Phys Earth Planet Int 71: 137–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Pinatubo Volcano Observatory Team (1991) Lessons from a major eruption: Mt. Pinatubo, Philippines. Eos (Trans Am Geophys Union) 72: 545, 552–553, 555Google Scholar
  108. Pitt AM, Hill DP (1994) Long-period earthquakes in the Long Valley Caldera Region, Eastern California. Geophys Res Lett 21: 1679–1682CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Podvin P, Lecomte I (1991) Finite difference computation of traveltimes in very contrasted velocity models: a massively parallel approach and its associated tools. Geophys J Int 105: 271–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Power JA, Lahr JC, Page RA, Chouet BA, Stephens CD, Harlow DH, Murray TL, Davies JN (1994) Seismic evolution of the 1989–1990 eruption sequence of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska. In: Miller TP, Chouet BA (eds) The 1989–1990 eruptions of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska. J Vol-canol Geotherm Res 62: 69–94Google Scholar
  111. Prosperetti A, Lezzi A (1986) Bubble dynamics in a compressible liquid. Part 1: first-order theory. J Fluid Mech 168: 457–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Prosperetti A, Crum LA, Commander KW (1988) Nonlinear bubble dynamics. J Acoust Soc Am 83: 502–514CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Robson GR (1992) Non-double couple earthquake mechanisms in volcanic environments. In: Gasparini P, Scarpa R, Aki K (eds) Volcanic seismology. IAVCEI Proc in Volcanology 3. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 235–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Ryan MP, Koyanagi RY, Fiske RS (1981) Modeling the three-dimensional structure of magma transport systems: application to Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii. J Geophys Res 86: 7111–7129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Sanders C, Ho-Liu P, Rinn D, Kanamori H (1988) Anomalous shear wave attenuation in the shallow crust beneath the Coso volcanic region, California. J Geophys Res 93: 3321–3338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Schilly MM, Smith RB, Braile LW, Ansorge J (1982) The 1978 Yellowstone-eastern Snake River plain seismic profiling experiment: data and upper crustal structure of the Yellowstone region. J Geophys Res 87: 2692–2704CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Schmidt RO (1981) A signal subspace approach to multiple emitter location and spectral estimation. PhD Thesis, Stanford University, Palo AltoGoogle Scholar
  118. Schmidt RO (1986) Multiple emitter location and signal parameter estimation. IEEE Trans Antennas Propagation 34: 276–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Shaw HR (1980) The fracture mechanism of magma transport from the mantle to the surface. In: Hargraves RB (ed) Physics of magmatic processes. Princeton University Press, Princeton, pp 201–264Google Scholar
  120. Shaw HR, Chouet B (1991) Fractal hierarchies of magma transport in Hawaii and critical self-organization of tremor. J Geophys Res 96: 10191–10207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Shimizu H, Ueki S, Koyama J (1987) A tensile-shear crack model for the mechanism of volcanic earthquakes. Tectonophysics 144: 287–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Smith RB, Schilly MM, Braile LW, Ansorge J, Lehman JL, Baker MR, Prodehl C, Healy JH, Mueller S, Greensfelder RW (1982) The 1978 Yellowstone-eastern Snake River plain seismic profiling experiment: crustal structure of the Yellowstone region and experiment design. J Geophys Res 87: 2583–2596CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Sparks SRJ, Sigurdsson H, Wilson L (1977) Magma mixing: a mechanism for triggering acid explosive eruptions. Nature 267: 315–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Spudich P, Oppenheimer D (1986) Dense seismograph array observations of earthquake rupture dynamics. In: Das S, Boatwright J, Scholz CH (eds) Earthquake source mechanics. Maurice Ewing, vol 6. American Geophysical Union. Washington DC, pp 285–296Google Scholar
  125. Stephens CD, Chouet BA, Page RA, Lahr JC, Power JA (1994) Seismological aspects of the 1989–1990 eruptions at Redoubt Volcano, Alaska: the SSAM perspective. In: Miller TP, Chouet BA (eds) The 1989–1990 eruptions of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 62: 153–182Google Scholar
  126. Swanson SE, Nye CJ, Miller TP, Avery VF (1994) Geochemistry of the 1989–1990 eruption of Redoubt Volcano. Part II: evidence from mineral and glass chemistry. In: Miller TP, Chouet BA (eds) The 1989–1990 eruptions of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 62: 453–468Google Scholar
  127. Takeo M (1987) An inversion method to analyze the rupture processes of earthquakes using near-field seismograms. Bull Seismol Soc Am 77: 490–513Google Scholar
  128. Takeo M (1992) The rupture process of the 1989 Offshore Ito earthquakes preceding a submarine volcanic eruption. J Geophys Res 97: 6613–6627CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Tessmer E, Kosloff D, Behle A (1992) Elastic wave propagation simulation in the presence of surface topography. Geophys J Int 108: 621–632CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Thurber CH (1983) Earthquake locations and three-dimensional crustal structure in the Coyote Lake area, central California. J Geophys Res 88: 8226–8236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Thurber CH (1984) Seismic detection of the summit magma complex of Kilauea volcano, Hawaii. Science 223: 165–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Toomey DR, Foulger GR (1989) Tomographic inversion of local earthquake data from the Hengill-Grensdalur central volcano complex, Iceland. J Geophys Res 94: 17497–17510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Tryggvason E (1994) Observed ground deformation at Hekla, Iceland prior to and during the eruptions of 1970, 1980–1981 and 1991. J Volcanol Geotherm Res 61: 281–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Uhira K, Takeo M (1994) The source of explosive eruptions of Sakurajima volcano, Japan. J Geophys Res 99: 17775–17789CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Uhira K, Yamasato H, Takeo M (1994) Source mechanism of seismic waves excited by pyroclastic flows observed at Unzen Volcano, Japan. J Geophys Res 99: 17757–17773CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Ukawa M, Ohtake M (1987) A monochromatic earthquake suggesting deep-seated magmatic activity beneath the Izu-Ooshima Volcano, Japan. J Geophys Res 92: 12649–12663CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Valentine GA (1988) Field and theoretical aspects of explosive volcanic transport process. MSc Thesis, Los Alamos National Laboratory LA-11441-T, Los AlamosGoogle Scholar
  138. Valentine GA, Wohletz KH (1989) Numerical models of plinian eruption columns and pyroclastic flows. J Geophys Res 94: 1867–1887CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Van Wijngaarden L (1972) One-dimensional flow of liquids containing small gas bubbles. Annu Rev Fluid Mech 4: 369–396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Vidale J (1988) Finite-difference calculation of travel times. Bull Seismol Soc Am 78: 2062–2076Google Scholar
  141. Vidale JE (1990) Finite-difference calculation of traveltimes in three dimensions. Geophysics 55: 521–526CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Virieux J (1984) SH-wave propagation in heterogeneous media: velocity-stress finite-difference method. Geophysics 49: 1933–1942CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Virieux J (1986) P-SV wave propagation in heterogeneous media: velocity-stress finite-difference method. Geophysics 51: 889–901CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Virieux J, Madariaga R (1982) Dynamic faulting studied by a finite difference method. Bull Seismol Soc Am 72: 345–369Google Scholar
  145. Voight B, Glicken H, Janda RJ, Douglass PM (1981) Catastrophic rockslide-avalanche of May 18. In: Lipman PW, Mullineaux DR (eds) The 1980 eruptions of Mount St. Helens. US Geol Surv Prof Pap 1250. US government printing office, Washington, pp 347–378Google Scholar
  146. Wada T, Ono H (1965) Spectral study of volcanic micro-tremors (1) Propagation of the micro-tremors of the first kind observed at Aso. Spec Contrib Geophys Inst Kyoto Univ 5: 169–178Google Scholar
  147. Wallace T, Helmberger DV, Mellman G (1981) A technique for the inversion of regional data in source parameter studies. J Geophys Res 86: 1679–1685CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Wang H, Kaveh M (1985) Coherent signal-subspace processing for the detection and estimation of angles of arrival of multiple wide-band sources. IEEE Trans Acoust Speech Signal Proc 33: 823–831CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Wax M, Kailath T (1983) Estimating the number of signals by information théorie criteria. In: Proc ASSP Spectral Estimation Workshop II, Tampa, pp 192–196Google Scholar
  150. Wohletz KH, Valentine GA (1990) Computer simulations of explosive eruptions. In: Ryan M (ed) Magma storage and transport. John Wiley, New York, pp 113–135Google Scholar
  151. Yoon SW, Crum LA, Prosperetti A, Lu NQ (1991) An investigation of the collective oscillations of a bubble cloud. J Acoust Soc Am 89: 700–706CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Young C, Ward RW (1980) Three-dimensional Q -1 model of the Coso Hot Springs known geo- thermal resource area. J Geophys Res 85: 2459–2470CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Zelt CA, Smith RB (1989) Seismic traveltime inversion for 2-D crustal velocity structure. Geophys J Int 108: 16–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Zollo A, Bernard P (1992) Nonlinear inversion of S-wave polarization for constraining the source mechanism of small earthquakes. In: Gasparini P, Scarpa R, Aki K (eds) Volcanic seismology. IAVCEI Proc in Volcanology 3. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 248–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Zucca J J, Hill DP, Kovach RL (1982) Crustal structure of Mauna Loa volcano, Hawaii, from seismic refraction and gravity data. Bull Seismol Soc Am 72: 1535–1550Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. A. Chouet
    • 1
  1. 1.Volcano Hazards TeamU.S. Geological SurveyMenlo ParkUSA

Personalised recommendations