An Overview and Recent Developments in Dual Scaling

  • Shizuhiko Nishisato
Conference paper
Part of the Studies in Classification, Data Analysis, and Knowledge Organization book series (STUDIES CLASS)


Dual scaling quantifies such categorical data as contingency tables, multiple-choice data, sorting data, paired comparison data, rank-order data, and successive categories data. These data can be classified into two types, incidence data and dominance data. The present study is an overview of some key formulas and several conceptual problems, which require further investigations. Most of them are peculiar to data types, and some remedial procedures are suggested for them as interim measures. Awareness of these difficulties in dual scaling and other related methods seems to be the most notable recent development.


Trivial Solution Incidence Data Multiple Correspondence Analysis Proper Solution Missing Response 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin · Heidelberg 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shizuhiko Nishisato
    • 1
  1. 1.The Ontario Institute for Studies in EducationUniversity of TorontoTorontoCanada

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