Advertisement

Nitric Oxide as a Mediator of Hypotension and Inflammation in Sepsis

  • R. L. Danner
  • J. Cobb
  • A. L. Van Dervort
Part of the Update in Intensive Care and Emergency Medicine book series (UICM, volume 24)

Abstract

Septic shock is a severe systemic inflammatory response caused by infection with any of a wide variety of microorganisms. Clinically, it is characterized by fever, hypotension, and signs of organ hypoperfusion or dysfunction. The high mortality rate of septic shock, despite the administration of effective antimicrobial agents, fluids, and catecholamine vasopressors, has led to an extensive effort to identify the microbial products, host mediators, and cell- activation mechanisms that trigger and fuel the clinical manifestations of this syndrome. As a result of this effort, our understanding of septic shock has grown exponentially. However, although therapies targeting newly discovered pathogenic mechanisms have been developed, none have as yet demonstrated clinical efficacy [1], One of the most interesting mediators recently implicated in septic shock is nitric oxide (NO).

Keywords

Nitric Oxide Nitric Oxide Septic Shock Mean Arterial Pressure Human Neutrophil 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Natanson C, Hoffman WD, Suffredini AF, Eichacker PQ, Danner RL (1994) Selected treatment strategies for septic shock based on proposed mechanisms of pathogenesis. Ann Intern Med 120:771–783PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Moncada S, Palmer RM, Higgs EA (1991) Nitric oxide: Physiology, pathophysiology, and pharmacology. Pharmacol Rev 43:109–142PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Nathan C (1992) Nitric oxide as a secretory product of mammalian cells. FASEB J 6: 3051–3064PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Garthwaite J, Charles SL, Chess-Williams R (1988) Endothelium-derived relaxing factor release on activation of NMD A receptors suggests role as intercellular messenger in the brain. Nature 336:385–388PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Palmer RM, Ferrige AG, Moncada S (1987) Nitric oxide release accounts for the biological activity of endothelium-derived relaxing factor. Nature 327:524–526PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Vallance P, Collier J, Moncada S (1989) Effects of endothelium-derived nitric oxide on peripheral arteriolar tone in man. Lancet 2:997–1000PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Forsterman U, Schmidt HH, Pollock JS, et al (1991) Isoforms of nitric oxide synthase: Characterization and purification from different cell types. Biochem Pharmacol 42: 1849–1857Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Morris SM Jr, Billiar TR (1994) New insights into the regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase. Am J Physiol 266 (Endocrinol Metab 29): E829-E839PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Radomski MW, Palmer RMJ, Moncada S (1990) Glucocorticoids inhibit the expression of an inducible, but not the constitutive, nitric oxide synthase in vascular endothelial cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 87:10043–10047PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    MacNaul KL, Hutchinson NI (1993) Differential expression of iNOS and cNOS mRNA in human vascular smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells under normal and inflammatory conditions. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 196:1330–1334PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lonchampt MO, Auguet M, Delaflotte S, Goulin-Schulz J, Chabrier PE, Braquet P (1992) Lipoteichoic acid: A new inducer of nitric oxide synthase. J Cardiovas Pharmacol 20 (Suppl 12):S145-S147Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Goodrum KJ, McCormick LL, Schneider B (1994) Group B streptococcus-induced nitric oxide production in murine macrophages is CR3 (CDllb/CD18) dependent. Infect Immun 62:3102–3107PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Zembowicz A, Vane JR (1992) Induction of nitric oxide synthase activity by toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 in a macrophage-monocyte cell line. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 89:2051–2055PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Geller DA, Nussler AK, Di Silvio M, et al (1992) Cytokines, endotoxin, and glucocorticoids regulate the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in hepatocytes. Cell Biol 90:522–526Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Nava E, Palmer RM, Moncada S (1992) The role of nitric oxide in endotoxin shock: Effects of NG-monomethyl-L-arginine. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 20 (Suppl 12): S132-S134PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Thiemermann C (1994) The role of the L-arginine: Nitric oxide pathway in circulatory shock. Advances in Pharmacology 28:45–79PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lorente JA, Landin L, De Pablo R, Renes E, Liste D (1993) L-arginine pathway in the sepsis syndrome. Crit Care Med 21:1287–1295PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Petros A, Lamb G, Leone A, Moncada S, Bennett D, Vallance P (1994) Effects of a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor in humans with septic shock. Cardiovasc Res 28:34–39PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Danner RL, Elin RJ, Hosseini JM, Wesley RA, Reilly JM, Parrillo JE (1991) Endo- toxemia in human septic shock. Chest 99:169–175PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Parker MM, Shelhamer JH, Natanson C, Ailing DW, Parrillo JE (1987) Serial cardiovascular variables in survivors and nonsurvivors of human septic shock: Heart rate as an early predictor of prognosis. Crit Care Med 15:923–929PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Parker MM, Shelhamer JH, Bacharach SL, et al (1984) Profound but reversible myocardial depression in patients with septic shock. Ann Intern Med 100:483–490PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Thiemermann C, Vane J (1990) Inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis reduces the hypotension induced by bacterial lipopolysaccharides in the rat in vivo. Eur J Pharmacol 182:591–595PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kilbourn RG, Gross SS, Jubran A, et al (1990) NG-methyl-L-arginine inhibits tumor necrosis factor-induced hypotension: Implications for the involvement of nitric oxide. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 87:3629–3632PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kilbourn RG, Jubran A, Gross SS, et al (1990) Reversal of endotoxin-mediated shock by NG-methyl-L-arginine, an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthesis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 172:1132–1138PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kilbourn RG, Griffith OW (1992) Overproduction of nitric oxide in cytokine-me- diated and septic shock. J Natl Cancer Inst 84:827–831PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Minnard EA, Shou J, Naama H, Cech A, Gallagher H, Daly JM (1994) Inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis is detrimental during endotoxemia. Arch Surg 129:142–148PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Cobb JP, Natanson C, Quezado ZMN, et al (1995) The differential hemodynamic effects of Nω-monomethyl-L-arginine in endotoxemic and normal canines. Am J Physiol 268 (Heart Circ Physiol 37):H1634-H1642PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Ochoa JB, Udekwu AO, Billiar TR, et al (1991) Nitrogen oxide levels in patients after trauma and during sepsis. Ann Surg 214:621–626PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Shi Y, Li H, Shen C, et al (1993) Plasma nitric oxide levels in newborn infants with sepsis. J Pediatr 123:435–438PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Stuehr DJ, Cho HJ, Kwon NS, Weise MF, Nathan CF (1991) Purification and characterization of the cytokine-induced macrophage nitric oxide synthase: An FAD- and FMN-containing flavoprotein. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 88:7773–7777PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Adler H, Peterhans E, Nicolet J, Jungi TW (1994) Inducible L-arginine-dependent nitric oxide synthase activity in bovine bone marrow-derived macrophages. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 198:510–515PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Beasley D, Schwartz JH, Brenner BM (1991) Interleukin 1 induces prolonged L-argi- nine-dependent cyclic guanosine monophosphate and nitrite production in rat vascular smooth muscle cells. J Clin Invest 87:602–608PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Schneeman M, Schoedon G, Hofer S, Blau N, Guerrero L, Schaffner A (1993) Nitric oxide synthase is not a constituent of the antimicrobial armature of human mononuclear phagocytes. J Infect Dis 167:1358–1363Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Kilbourn RG, Gross SS, Lodato RF, et al (1992) Inhibition of interleukin-l-alpha- induced nitric oxide synthase in vascular smooth muscle and full reversal of inter- leukin-1 -alpha-induced hypotension by Nω-amino-L-arginine. J Natl Cancer Inst 84: 1008–1016 Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Hollenberg SM, Cunnion RE, Zimmerberg J (1993) Nitric oxide synthase inhibition reverses arteriolar hyporesponsiveness to catecholamines in septic rats. Am J Physiol 264 (Heart Circ Physiol 33): H660-H663PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Gray GA, Schott C, Julou-Schaeffer G, Fleming I, Parratt JR, Stoclet JC (1991) The effect of inhibitors of the L-arginine/nitric oxide pathways on endotoxin-induced loss of vascular responsiveness in anaesthetized rats. Br J Pharmacol 103:1218–1224PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Szabo C, Mitchell JA, Thiemermann C, Vane JR (1993) Nitric oxide-mediated hypo- reactivity to noradrenaline precedes the induction of nitric oxide synthase in endotoxin shock. Br J Pharmacol 108:786–792PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Balligand JL, Ungureanu D, Kelly RA, et al (1993) Abnormal contractile function due to induction of nitric oxide synthesis in rat cardiac myocytes follows exposure to activated macrophage-conditioned medium. J Clin Invest 91:2314–2319PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Finkel MS, Oddis CV, Jacob TD, Watkins SC, Hattler BG, Simmons RL (1992) Negative inotropic effects of cytokines on the heart mediated by nitric oxide. Science 257: 387–389PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Brady AJB, Poole-Wilson PA, Harding SE, Warren JB (1992) Nitric oxide production within cardiac myocytes reduces their contractility in endotoxemia. Am J Physiol 263 (Heart Circ Physiol 32):H1963-H1966PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Estrada C, Gómez C, Martin C, Moneada S, González C (1992) Nitric oxide mediates tumor necrosis factor-a cytotoxicity in endothelial cells. Biochem Biophys Res Com- mun 186:475–482Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Nguyen T, Brunson D, Crespi CL, Penman BW, Wishnok JS, Tannenbaum SR (1992) DNA damage and mutation in human cells exposed to nitric oxide in vitro. Biochemistry 89:3030–3034Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Parrillo JE, Parker MM, Natanson C, et al (1990) Septic shock in humans: Advances in the understanding of pathogenesis, cardiovascular dysfunction, and therapy. Ann Intern Med 113:227–242PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Van Dervort AL, Yan L, Madara PJ, et al (1994) Nitric oxide regulates endotoxin- induced TNF-a production by human neutrophils. J Immunol 152:4102–4109PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Meyer J, Traber LD, Nelson S, et al (1992) Reversal of hyperdynamic response to continuous endotoxin administration by inhibition of NO synthesis. J Appl Physiol 73:324–328PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Meyer J, Lentz CW, Stothert JC, Traber LD, Herndon DN, Traber DL (1994) Effects of nitric oxide synthesis inhibition in hyperdynamic endotoxemia. Crit Care Med 22: 306–312PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Meyer J, Hinder F, Stothert J Jr, et al (1994) Increased organ blood flow in chronic endotoxemia is reversed by nitric oxide synthase inhibition. J Appl Physiol 76: 2785–2793PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Teale DM, Atkinson AM (1992) Inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis improves survival in a murine peritonitis model of sepsis that is not cured by antibiotics alone. J Anti- microb Chemother 30:839–842Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Evans T, Carpenter A, Silva A, Cohen J (1994) Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase in experimental gram-negative sepsis. J Infect Dis 169:343–349PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Wu CC, Szabó C, Chen SJ, Thiemermann C, Vane JR (1994) Activation of soluble guanylyl cylase by a factor other than nitric oxide or carbon monoxide contributes to the vascular hyporeactivity to vasoconstrictor agents in the aorta of rats treated with endotoxin. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 201:436–442PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Yamanaka S, Iwao H, Yukimura T, Kim S, Miura K (1993) Effect of the platelet- activating factor antagonist, TCV-309, and the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, ibuprofen, on the haemodynamic changes in canine experimental endotoxic shock. Br J Pharmacol 110:1501–1507PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    McCormack DG, Paterson NAM (1993) Loss of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction in chronic pneumonia is not mediated by nitric oxide. Am J Physiol 265 (Heart Circ Physiol 34): H1523-H1528PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Klabunde RE, Helgren MC (1992) Cardiovascular actions of NG-methyl-L-arginine are abolished in a canine shock model using high-dose endotoxin. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 78:57–68Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Cobb JP, Natanson C, Hoffman WD, et al (1992) Nw-amino-L-arginine, an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, raises vascular resistance but increases mortality rates in awake canines challenged with endotoxin. J Exp Med 176:1175–1182PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Spain DA, Wilson MA, Garrison RN (1994) Nitric oxide synthase inhibition exacerbates sepsis-induced renal hypoperfusion. Surgery 116:322–331PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Robertson FM, Offner PJ, Ciceri DP, Becker WK, Pruitt BA (1994) Detrimental hemodynamic effects of nitric oxide synthase inhibition in septic shock. Arch Surg 129:149–156PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Landin L, Lorente JA, Renes E, Cañas P, Jorge P, Liste D (1994) Inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis improves the vasoconstrictive effect of noradrenaline in sepsis. Chest 106:250–256PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Lorente J A, Landin L, Renes E, et al (1993) Role of nitric oxide in the hemodynamic changes of sepsis. Crit Care Med 21:759–767PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Olken NM, Rusche KM, Richards MK, Marietta MA (1991) Inactivation of macrophage nitric oxide synthase activity by NG-methyl-L-arginine. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 177:828–833PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Dwyer MA, Bredt DS, Snyder SH (1991) Nitric oxide synthase: Irreversible inhibition by L-NG-nitroarginine in brain in vitro and in vivo. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 176:1136–1141PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Assreuy J, Cunha FQ, Liew FY, Moncada S (1993) Feedback inhibition of nitric oxide synthase activity by nitric oxide. Br J Pharmacol 108:833–837PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Vodovotz Y, Kwon NS, Pospischil M, Manning J, Paik J, Nathan C (1994) Inactivation of nitric oxide synthase after prolonged incubation of mouse macrophages with IFN-7 and bacterial lipopolysaccharide. J Immunol 152:4110-4118PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Kimoto M, Tsuji H, Ogawa T, Sasaoka K (1993) Detection of NG,NG-dimethylargini- ne dimethylaminohydrolase in the nitric oxide-generating systems of rats using monoclonal antibody. Arch Biochem Biophys 300:657–662PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Ghigo D, Alessio P, Foco A, et al (1993) Nitric oxide synthesis is impaired in gluta- thione-depleted human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Am J Physiol 265 (Cell Physiol 34): C728-C732PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Schoedon G, Schneemann M, Blau N, Edgell CJS, Schaffner A (1993) Modulation of human endothelial cell tetrahydrobiopterin synthesis by activating and deactivating cytokines: New perspectives on endothelium-derived relaxing factor. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 196:1343–1348PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Cooke JP, Tsao PS (1993) Cytoprotective effects of nitric oxide. Circulation 88: 2451–2454PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    MacKendrick W, Caplan M, Hsueh W (1993) Endogenous nitric oxide protects against platelet-activating factor-induced bowel injury in the rat. Pediatr Res 34: 222–228PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Weyrich AS, Ma X, Lefer AM (1992) The role of L-arginine in ameliorating reper- fusion injury after myocardial ischemia in the cat. Circulation 86:279–288PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Harbrecht BG, Billiar TR, Stadler J, et al (1992) Nitric oxide synthesis serves to reduce hepatic damage during acute murine endotoxemia. Crit Care Med 20:1568–1574PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Harbrecht BG, Stadler J, Demetrius AJ, Simmons RL, Billiar TR (1994) Nitric oxide and prostaglandins interact to prevent hepatic damage during murine endotoxemia. Am J Physiol 266 (Gastrointest Liver Physiol 29): G1004-G1010PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Stamler JS, Osborne J A, Jaraki O, et al (1993) Adverse vascular effects of homocysteine are modulated by endothelium-derived relaxing factor and related oxides of nitrogen. J Clin Invest 91:308–318PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Kubes P, Kanwar S, Niu XF, Gaboury JP (1993) Nitric oxide synthesis inhibition induces leukocyte adhesion via superoxide and mast cells. FASEB J 7:1293–1299PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Parker JL, Adams HR (1993) Selective inhibition of endothelium-dependent vasodilator capacity by Escherichia coli endotoxemia. Circ Res 72:539–551PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Statman R, Cheng W, Cunningham JN, et al (1994) Nitric oxide inhibition in the treatment of the sepsis syndrome is detrimental to tissue oxygenation. J Surg Res 57:93–98PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Wright CE, Rees DD, Moncada S (1992) Protective and pathological roles of nitric oxide in endotoxin shock. Cardiovasc Res 26:48–57PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Klabunde RE, Ritger RC (1991) NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (NMA) restores arterial blood pressure but reduces cardiac output in a canine model of endotoxic shock. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 178:1135–1140PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Pastor C, Teisseire B, Vicaut E, Payen D (1994) Effects of L-arginine and L-nitro- arginine treatment on blood pressure and cardiac output in a rabbit endotoxin shock model. Crit Care Med 22:465–469PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Hutcheson IR, Whittle BJR, Boughton-Smith NK (1990) Role of nitric oxide in maintaining vascular integrity in endotoxin-induced acute intestinal damage in the rat. Br J Pharmacol 101:815–820PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Rosenkranz-Weiss P, Sessa WC, Milstien S, Kaufman S, Watson CA, Pober JS (1994) Regulation of nitric oxide synthesis by proinflammatory cytokines in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. J Clin Invest 93:2236–2243PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Moilanen E, Vuorinen P, Kankaanranta H, Metsa-Ketela, Vapaatalo H (1993) Inhibition by nitric oxide-donors of human polymorphonuclear leukocyte functions. Br J Pharmacol 109:852–858PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Clancy RM, Leszczynska-Piziak J, Abramson SB (1992) Nitric oxide, an endothelial cell relaxation factor, inhibits neutrophil superoxide anion production via a direct action on the NADPH oxidase. J Clin Invest 90:1116–1121PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Kaplan SS, Billiar T, Curran RD, Zdziarski UE, Simmons RL, Basford RE (1989) Inhibition of chemotaxis with NG-monomethyl-L-arginine: A role for cyclic GMP. Blood 74:1885–1887PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Belenky SN, Robbins RA, Rennard SI, Gossman GL, Nelson KJ, Rubinstein I (1993) Inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase attenuate human neutrophil chemotaxis in vitro. J Lab Clin Med 122:388–394PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Clancy RM, Levartovsky D, Leszczynska-Piziak J, Yegudin J, Abramson SB (1994) Nitric oxide reacts with intracellular glutathione and activates the hexose monophosphate shunt in human neutrophils: Evidence for S-nitrosoglutathione as a bioactive intermediary. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 91:3680–3684PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Wyatt TA, Lincoln TM, Pryzwansky KB (1993) Regulation of human neutrophil degranulation by LY-83583 and L-arginine: Role of cGMP-dependent protein kinase. Am J Physiol 265 (Cell Physiol 34): C201-C211PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Clancy RM, Leszczynska-Piziak J, Abramson SB (1993) Nitric oxide stimulates the ADP-ribosylation of actin in human neutrophils. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 191:847–852PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Kubes P, Suzuki M, Granger DN (1991) Nitric oxide: An endogenous modulator of leukocyte adhesion. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 88:4651–4654PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Niu X, Smith W, Kubes P (1994) Intracellular oxidative stress induced by nitric oxide synthesis inhibition increases endothelial cell adhesion to neutrophils. Circ Res 74:1133–1140PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Suematsu M, Tamatani T, Delano FA, et al (1994) Microvascular oxidative stress preceding leukocyte activation elicited by in vivo nitric oxide suppression. Am J Physiol 266 (Heart Circ Physiol 35):H2410-H2415PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Gaboury J, Woodman RC, Granger DN, Reinhardt P, Kubes P (1993) Nitric oxide prevents leukocyte adherence: Role of superoxide. Am J Physiol 265 (Heart Circ Physiol 34): H862-H867PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Van Dervort AL, Yan L, Madara PJ, et al (1993) Nitric oxide (NO) increases endotoxin (LPS)-induced cytokine production by human neutrophils (PMNs). Clin Res 41:281A (Abst)Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Masini E, Di Bello MG, Pistelli A, et al (1994) Generation of nitric oxide from nitro- vasodilators modulates the release of histamine from mast cells. J Physiol Pharmacol 45:41–53PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Salvemini D, Misko TP, Masferrer JL, Seibert K, Currie MG, Needleman P (1993) Nitric oxide activates cyclooxygenase enzymes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 90:7240-7244Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Roland CR, Goss JA, Mangino MJ, Hafenrichter D, Flye MW (1994) Autoregulation by eicosanoids of human Kupffer cell secretory products. Ann Surg 219:389–399PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Stadler J, Harbrecht BG, Di Silvio M, et al (1993) Endogenous nitric oxide inhibits the synthesis of cyclooxygenase products and interleukin-6 by rat Kupffer cells. J Leu- koc Biol 53:165–172Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Bath PMW (1993) The effect of nitric oxide-donating vasodilators on monocyte chemotaxis and intracellular cGMP concentrations in vitro. Eur J Clin Pharmacol 45:53–58PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Fukushima T, Sekizawa K, Jin Y, Sasaki H (1994) Interferon-7 increases cytoplasmic motility of alveolar macrophages via nitric oxide-dependent signaling pathways. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 10:65–71PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Sicher SC, Vazquez MA, Lu CY (1994) Inhibition of macrophage la expression by nitric oxide. J Immunol 153:1293–1300PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Magrinat G, Mason SN, Shami PJ, Weinberg JB (1992) Nitric oxide modulation of human leukemia cell differentiation and gene expression. Blood 80:1880–1884PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Albina JE, Cui S, Mateo RB, Reichner JS (1993) Nitric oxide-mediated apoptosis in murine peritoneal macrophages. J Immunol 150:5080–5085PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Lander HM, Sehajpal P, Levine DM, Novogrodsky A (1993) Activation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells by nitric oxide-generating compounds. J Immunol 150:1509–1516PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Eigler A, Sinha B, Endres S (1993) Nitric oxide-releasing agents enhance cytokine- induced tumor necrosis factor synthesis in human mononuclear cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 196:494–501PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Oliver JA (1992) Endothelium-derived relaxing factor contributes to the regulation of endothelial permeability. J Cell Physiol 151:506–511PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Kubes P, Granger DN (1992) Nitric oxide modulates microvascular permeability. Am J Physiol 262 (Heart Circ Physiol 31): H611-H615PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Filep JG, Foldes-Filep É, Sirois P (1993) Nitric oxide modulates vascular permeability in the rat coronary circulation. Br J Pharmacol 108:323–326PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Paul W, Douglas GJ, Lawrence L, et al (1994) Cutaneous permeability responses to bradykinin and histamine in the guinea pig: Possible differences in their mechanism of action. Br J Pharmacol 111: 159–164PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Lejeune P, Lagadec P, Onier N, Pinard D, Ohshima H, Jeannin JF (1994) Nitric oxide involvement in tumor-induced immunosuppression. J Immunol 152:5077–5083PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Schleifer KW, Mansfield JM (1993) Suppressor macrophages in African trypanosomiasis inhibit T cell proliferative responses by nitric oxide and prostaglandins. J Immunol 151:5492–5503PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Hoffman RA, Langrehr JM, Wren SM, et al (1993) Characterization of the immunosuppressive effects of nitric oxide in graft vs host disease. J Immunol 151: 1508–1518PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Lefer DJ, Nakanishi K, Johnston WE, Vinten-Johansen J (1993) Antineutrophil and myocardial protecting actions of a novel nitric oxide donor after acute myocardial ischemia and reperfusion in dogs. Circulation 88:2337–2350PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Ma X, Weyrich AS, Lefer DJ, Lefer AM (1993) Diminished basal nitric oxide release after myocardial ischemia and reperfusion promotes neutrophil adherence to coronary endothelium. Circ Res 72:403–412PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Matheis G, Sherman MP, Buckberg GD, et al (1992) Role of L-arginine-nitric oxide pathway in myocardial reoxygenation injury. Am J Physiol 262 (Heart Circ Physiol 31):H616-H620PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Bastian NR, Xu S, Shao XL, Shelby J, Granger DL, Hibbs JB Jr (1994) Nw-monome- thyl-L-arginine inhibits nitric oxide production in murine cardiac allografts but does not affect graft rejection. Biochem Biophys Acta 1226:225–231PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Huang Z, Huang PL, Panahian N, Dalkara T, Fishman MC, Moskowitz MA (1994) Effects of cerebral ischemia in mice deficient in neuronal nitric oxide synthase. Science 265:1883–1885PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    McDonald LJ, Moss J (1993) Stimulation by nitric oxide of a NAD linkage to glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 90:6238–6241PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Peterson DA, Peterson DC, Archer S, Weir EK (1992) The non-specificity of specific nitric oxide synthase inhibitors. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 187:797–801PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Gregory SH, Sagnimeni AJ, Wing EJ (1994) Arginine analogues suppress antigen- specific and -nonspecific T lymphocyte proliferation. Cell Immunol 153:527–532PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Yui Y, Hattori R, Kosuga K, et al (1991) Calmodulin-independent nitric oxide synthase from rat polymorphonuclear neutrophils. J Biol Chem 266:3369–3371PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Stuehr DJ, Gross SS, Sakuma I, Levi R, Nathan CF (1989) Activated murine macrophages secrete a metabolite of arginine with the bioactivity of endothelium-derived relaxing factor and the chemical reactivity of nitric oxide. J Exp Med 169:1011–1020PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Takema M, Inaba K, Uno K, Kakihara KI, Tawara K, Muramatsu S (1991) Effect of L-arginine on the retention of macrophage tumoricidal activity. J Immunol 146: 1928–1933PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Boockvar KS, Granger DL, Poston RM, et al (1994) Nitric oxide produced during murine listeriosis is protective. Infect Immun 62:1089–1100PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Beckerman KP, Rogers HW, Corbett JA, Schreiber RD, McDaniel ML, Unanue ER (1993) Release of nitric oxide during the T cell-independent pathway of macrophage activation. Its role in resistance to Listeria monocytogenes. J Immunol 150:888–895PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Taylor-Robinson AW, Phillips RS, Severn A, Moneada S, Liew FY (1993) The role of T h1 and T H2 cells in a rodent malaria infection. Science 260:1931–1934PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Karupiah G, Xie Q, Buller ML, Nathan C, Duarte C, MacMicking JD (1993) Inhibition of viral replication by interferon-7-induced nitric oxide synthase. Science 261: 1445–1448PubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Kolb JP, Paul-Eugene N, Damais C, Yamaoka K, Drapier JC, Dugas B (1994) Inter- leukin-4 stimulates cGMP production by IFN-7-activated human monocytes. Involvement of the nitric oxide synthase pathway. J Biol Chem 269:9811–9816PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Mautino G, Paul-Eugene N, Chanez P, et al (1994) Heterogeneous spontaneous and interleukin-4-induced nitric oxide production by human monocytes. J Leukoc Biol 56:15–20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Pietraforte D, Tritarelli E, Testa U, Minetti M (1994) gpl20 HIV envelope glycoprotein increases the production of nitric oxide in human monocyte-derived macrophages. J Leukoc Biol 55:175–182PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Denis M (1991) Tumor necrosis factor and granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor stimulate human macrophages to restrict growth of virulentMycobacterium avium and to kill M. avium: Killing effector mechanism depends on the generation of reactive nitrogen intermediates. J Leukoc Biol 49:380–387PubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Reiling N, Ulmer AJ, Duchrow M, et al (1994) Nitric oxide synthase: mRNA expression of different isoforms in human monocytes/macrophages. Eur J Immunol 24: 1941–1944PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Kolb-Bachofen V, Alsdorf K, Fehsel K (1994) Expression of inducible NO synthase mRNA in human monocytes. Proceedings of the Eighth Annual Conference of the European Macrophage Study Group, p 57 [Abst]Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Wright CD, Mülsch A, Busse R, Osswald H (1989) Generation of nitric oxide by human neutrophils. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 160:813–819PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Bryant JL, Mehta P, Von der Porten A, Mehta JL (1992) Co-purification of 130 kD nitric oxide synthase and a 22 kD link protein from human neutrophils. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 189:558–564PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Rao KMK, Padmanabhan J, Kilby DL, Cohen HJ, Currie MS, Weinberg JB (1992) Flow cytometric analysis of nitric oxide production in human neutrophils using di- chlorofluorescein diacetate in the presence of a calmodulin inhibitor. J Leukoc Biol 51:496–500PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Schmidt HHHW, Seifert R, Böhme E (1989) Formation and release of nitric oxide from human neutrophils and HL-60 cells induced by a chemotactic peptide, platelet- activating factor and leukotriene B4. FEBS Lett 244:357–360PubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Riesco A, Caramelo C, Blum G, et al (1993) Nitric oxide-generating system as an autocrine mechanism in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Biochem J 292: 791–796PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Yan L, Vandivier RW, Suffredini AF, Danner RL (1994) Human polymorphonuclear leukocytes lack detectable nitric oxide synthase activity. J Immunol 153:1825–1834PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Stamler JS (1994) Redox signaling: Nitrosylation and related target interactions of nitric oxide. Cell 78:931–936PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Corriveau CC, Tropea MM, Yan L, et al (1993) Effect of nitric oxide on neutrophil Chemotaxis and PGE2 production. Sixth Pediatric Critical Care Colloquium p 39Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    May GR, Crook P, Moore PK, Page CP (1991) The role of nitric oxide as an endogenous regulator of platelet and neutrophil activation within the pulmonary circulation of the rabbit. Br J Pharmacol 102:759–763PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Martich GD, Danner RL, Ceska M, Suffredini AF (1991) Detection of interleukin-8 and tumor necrosis factor in normal humans after intravenous endotoxin: The effect of antiinflammatory agents. J Exp Med 173:1021–1024PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Vallance P, Palmer RMJ, Moncada S (1992) The role of induction of nitric oxide synthesis in the altered responses of jugular veins from endotoxaemic rabbits. Br J Pharmacol 106:459–463PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Natanson C, Fink MP, Ballantyne HK, MacVittie TJ, Conklin JJ, Parrillo JE (1986) Gram-negative bacteremia produces both severe systolic and diastolic dysfunction in a canine model that simulates human septic shock. J Clin Invest 78:259–270PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Meyer J, Lentz CW, Herndon DN, Nelson S, Traber LD, Traber DL (1993) Effects of halothane anesthesia on vasoconstrictor response to NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthesis, in sheep. Anesth Analg 77:1215–1221PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Aisaka K, Mitani A, Kitajima Y, Ohno T, Ishihara T (1991) Difference in pressor responses to NG-monomethyl-L-arginine between conscious and anesthetized rats. Japan J Pharmacol 56:245–248Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. L. Danner
  • J. Cobb
  • A. L. Van Dervort

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations