Advertisement

Beeinflussung der Motilität des GI-Trakts

  • P. Layer
  • A. Dignass
Conference paper

Zusammenfassung

Die Regulation der gastrointestinalen Motilität erfolgt auf mehreren Ebenen, die hierarchisch und interagierend aufgebaut sind. Die wichtigsten Komponenten sind die glatte Muskulatur, das enterische Nervensystem, die extrinsische Innervation sowie systemische und lokale Einflüsse (Hormone, Entzündungs- und Immunmediatoren, parakrine Botenstoffe). Während die Wirkungen einzelner Hormone und Neurotransmitter auf definierte motorische Funktionen relativ gut untersucht sind, ist die Regulation komplexer motorischer Antworten, die Integration mit sekretorischen, resorptiven und immunologischen Funktionen sowie das Zusammenspiel der zahlreichen Mediatorsysteme unter den unterschiedichen physiologischen und pathophysiologischen Bedingungen weitgehend unklar. Zytokine bilden offenbar eine zusätzliche modulatorische Ebene im Rahmen der Gesamtkontrolle: Sowohl in vitro als auch in vivo üben sie starke Effekte auf motorische Funktionen sowie auf die Bildung bzw. Freisetzung von Mediatoren aus.

Summary

Gastrointestinal motility is regulated on several different levels, which are organized in a hierarchical and interactive manner. The most important components are the smooth muscle, the enteric (intrinsic) nervous system, the extrinsic innervation and systemic and local messengers (hormones, inflammatory and immunologic mediators, paracrine messengers, cytokines). Although the effects of several hormones and neurotransmitters on defined motoric functions have been studied in detail, the regulation of complex motor responses is poorly characterized. These complex motor responses include the integration of motor responses with secretory, resorptive and immunological function as well as the interaction of several mediator systems under various physiological and pathophysiological conditions. It seems that cytokines play an additional role in modulating the motor responses: they exert important effects on motor functions and on the synthesis and release of mediators in vitro and in vivo.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literatur

  1. 1.
    Arbos J, Lopez-Soriano FJ, Carbo N, Argiles JM (1992) Effects of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (cachectin) on glucose metabolism in the rat. Intestinal absorption and isolated enterocyte metabolism. Mol Cell Biochem 112:53–59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Boughton-Smith NK, Evans SM, Hawkey CJ et al. (1993); Nitric oxide synthase activity in ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease. Lancet 342:338–340.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Collins SM (1994); Irritable bowel syndrome could be an inflammatory disorder. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 6:478–482.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Daun JM, McCarthy DO (1993); The role of cholecystokinin in interleukin-1-induced anorexia. Physiol Behav 54:237–241.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Dignass AU, Podolsky DK, Stamler JS, Rachmilewitz D (1994); Nitric oxide generation by intestinal epithelial cells is stimulated by cytokines and bacterial endotoxin. Gastroenterology 106:A603.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Fargeas MJ, Fioramonti J, Bueno L (1993) Central action of interleukin-1 beta on intestinal motility in rats: mediation by two mechanisms. Gastroenterology 104:377–383.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Fried M, Erlacher U, Schwizer W, Lochner C, Koerfer J, Beglinger C, Jansen JB, Lamers CB, Harder F, Bischof-Delaloye A, Stalder GA, Rovati L (1991); Role of cholecystokinin in the regulation of gastric emptying and pancreatic enzyme secretion in humans: Studies with the cholecystokinin-receptor antagonist loxiglumide. Gastroenterology 101:503–511.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Holzer HH, Raybould HE (1992); Vagal and splanchnic sensory pathways mediate inhibition of gastric motility induced by duodenal distension. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 262:G603–G608.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kinsman RJ, Read NW (1984); Effect of naloxone on feedback regulation of small bowel transit by fat. Gastroenterology 87:335–337.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Koch TR, Carney JA, Go VLW (1987); Distribution and quantitation of gut neuropeptides in normal intestine and inflammatory bowel diseases. Dig Dis Sci 32:369–376.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Koch TR, Roddy DR, Carney A, Go VLW (1988); Peptide YY concentrations in normal ileum and colon and in idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease. Dig Dis Sci 33:1322–1328.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Layer P, Zinsmeister AR, DiMagno EP (1986); Effects of decreasing intraluminal amylase activity on starch digestion and postprandial gastrointestinal function in humans. Gastroenterology 91:41–48.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Layer P, Peschel S, Schlesinger T, Goebell H (1990) Human pancreatic secretion and intestinal motility: effects of ileal nutrient perfusion. Am J Physiol 258 (Gastrointest Liver Physiol 21):G196–G201.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Layer P, Ohe M, Leben J, Gröger G, Goebell H (1991); Naloxone abolishes small intestinal motor but not pancreatic secretory response to ileal carbohydrates in humans. Gastroenterology 100:A284.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Layer P, Holst JJ, Gröger G, Grandt D, Goebell H (1992); Inhibition of human pancreatic secretion by intraileal carbohydrates: is PYY the mediator? Intern J Pancreatol 12:73.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Layer P, Holst JJ, Grandt D, Goebell H (in press) Ileal release of glucagonlike peptide-1 (GLP-1): association with inhibition of gastric acid secretion in humans. Dig Dis Sci.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lloyd KCK, Holzer HH, Zittel TT, Raybould HE (1993); Duodenal lipid inhibits gastric acid secretion by vagal, capsaicin-sensitive afferent pathways in rats. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 264:G659–G663.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    McCarthy DO, Daun JM (1992); The role of prostaglandins in interleukin-1 induced gastroparesis. Physiol Behav 52:351–353.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Miller MJS, Zhang XJ, Sadowska-Krowicka H, Chotinaruemol S, McIntyre JA, Clark DA, Bustamante SA. (1993); Nitric oxide release in response to gut injury. Scand J Gastroenterol 28:149–154.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Montuschi P, Preziosi P, Navarra P (1993) Interleukin-1 alpha and tumour necrosis factor inhibit rat gastric fundus motility in vitro. Eur J Pharmacol 233:303–304.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Montuschi P, Tringali G, Curro D, Ciabattoni G, Parente L, Preziosi P, Navarra P (1994) Evidence that interleukin-1 beta and tumor necrosis factor inhibit gastric fundus motility via the 5-lipoxygenase pathway. Eur J Pharmacol 252:253–260.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Rao SSC, Read NW, Brown C, Bruce C, Holdsworth CD (1987) Studies on the mechanism of bowel disturbance in ulcerative colitis. Gastroenterology 93:934–940.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Raybould HE (1991) Capsaicin sensitive vagal afferents and CCK in inhibition of gastric motor function induced by intestinal nutrients. Peptides 12:1279–1283.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Read, NW, A, McFarlane RJ, Kinsman TE, Bates NW, Blackhall GBJ. Farrar Hall JC G, Moss AP, Morris B, O’Neill I, Welch Y, Lee SR (1984) Bloom: Effect of infusion of nutrient solutions into the ileum on gastrointestinal transit and plasma levels of neurotensin and enteroglucagon. Gastroenterology 86:274–278.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Robert A, Olafsson AS, Lancaster C, Zhang WR (1991); Interleukin-1 is cytoprotective, antisecretory, stimulates PGE2 synthesis by the stomach, and retards gastric emptying. Life Sci 48:123–134.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Snape WJ, Samatarazzo SA, Cohen S (1980) Abnormal gastrocolonic response in patients with ulcerative colitis. Gut 21:392–396.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Spiller RC, Trotman IE, Higgins BE (1984); The ileal brake inhibition of jejunal motility after ileal fat perfusion in man. Gut 25:365–374.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Spiller RC, Trotman IF, Adrian TE, Bloom SR, Misiewicz JJ, Silk DBA (1988); Further characterisation of the “ileal brake” reflex in man — effect of ileal infusion of partial digests of fat, protein, and starch on jejunal motility and release of neurotensin, enteroglucagon, and peptide YY. Gut 29:1042–1051.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Suto G, Kiraly A, Tache Y (in press) Interleukin-1 beta inhibits gastric emptying in rats: mediation through prostaglandin and corticotropin-releasing factor. Gastroenterology.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Wettergren A, Schjoldager B, Mortensen PE, Myhre J, Christiansen J, Holst JJ (1993); Truncated glucagon-like peptide-1 (proglucagon 78–107 amide) inhibits gastric and pancreatic functions in man. Dig Dis Sci 38:665–673.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. Layer
  • A. Dignass

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations