The Prophenoloxidase Activating System and Associated Proteins in Invertebrates

  • M. W. Johansson
  • K. Söderhäll
Part of the Progress in Molecular and Subcellular Biology book series (PMSB, volume 15)


Invertebrates lack antibodies, lymphocytes or other features of the vertebrate adaptive immune system, but they have innate defence reactions (Ratcliffe et al. 1985). Many of them have an open circulatory system and therefore they need immediate and constitutive mechanisms for the recognition and immobilization of microorganisms and parasites, and for clotting to prevent blood loss upon wounding. Some invertebrates also have inducible defence reactions which are dependent on new or increased synthesis of, for example, antimicrobial proteins, but these will not be dealt with in this chapter.


Horseshoe Crab Phenol Oxidase Phenol Oxidase Activity Phenoloxidase Activity Serine Protease Domain 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. W. Johansson
    • 1
  • K. Söderhäll
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Physiological BotanyUniversity of UppsalaUppsalaSweden

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