Advertisement

The Prophenoloxidase Activating System and Associated Proteins in Invertebrates

  • M. W. Johansson
  • K. Söderhäll
Chapter
Part of the Progress in Molecular and Subcellular Biology book series (PMSB, volume 15)

Abstract

Invertebrates lack antibodies, lymphocytes or other features of the vertebrate adaptive immune system, but they have innate defence reactions (Ratcliffe et al. 1985). Many of them have an open circulatory system and therefore they need immediate and constitutive mechanisms for the recognition and immobilization of microorganisms and parasites, and for clotting to prevent blood loss upon wounding. Some invertebrates also have inducible defence reactions which are dependent on new or increased synthesis of, for example, antimicrobial proteins, but these will not be dealt with in this chapter.

Keywords

Horseshoe Crab Phenol Oxidase Phenol Oxidase Activity Phenoloxidase Activity Serine Protease Domain 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aketagawa J, Miyata T, Ohtsubo S, Nakamura T, Hayashida H, Miyata T, Iwanaga S (1986) Primary structure of Limulus anticoagulant anti-lipopolysaccharide factor. J Biol Chem 261: 7357–7365PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Andersson K, Sun S-C, Boman HG, Steiner H (1989) Purification of Cecropia prophenoloxidase and four proteins involved in its activation. Insect Biochem 19: 629–638Google Scholar
  3. Anggraeni T, Ratcliffe NA (1991) Studies on cell-cell co-operation during phagocytosis by purified haemocyte populations of the wax moth, Galleria mellonella. J Insect Physiol 37: 453–460Google Scholar
  4. Ashida M (1971) Purification and characterization of prephenoloxidase from hemolymph of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Arch Biochem Biophys 144: 749–762PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Ashida M, Dohke K (1980) Activation of prophenoloxidase by the activating enzyme of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Insect Biochem 10: 37–47Google Scholar
  6. Ashida M, Soderhall K (1984) The prophenoloxidase activating system in crayfish. Comp Biochem Physiol 77B: 21–26Google Scholar
  7. Ashida M, Yamazaki HI (1990) Biochemistry of the phenoloxidase system in insects: with special reference to its activation. In: Ohnishi E, Ishizaki H (eds) Molting and metamorphosis. Jpn Sci Soc Press/Springer, Berlin, pp 237–263Google Scholar
  8. Ashida M, Yoshida H (1988) Limited proteolysis of prophenoloxidase during activiation by microbial products in insect plasma and effect of phenoloxidase on electrophoretic mobilities of plasma proteins. Insect Biochem 18: 11–19Google Scholar
  9. Ashida M, Dohke K, Ohnishi E (1974) Activation of prephenoloxidase. III. Release of a peptide from prephenoloxidase by the activating enzyme. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 57: 1089–1095PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Ashida M, Iwama R, Iwahana H, Yoshida H (1982) Control and function of the prophenoloxidase activating system. In: Payne CC, Burges HD (eds) Proceedings of the 3rd international colloquium on invertebrate pathology. Univ Sussex, Brighton, pp 81–86Google Scholar
  11. Ashida M, Ishizaki Y, Iwahana H (1983) Activation of pro-phenoloxidase by bacterial cell walls or ß-1,3-glucan in plasma of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 113: 562–568PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Ashida M, Ochiai O, Nlki T (1988) Immunolocalization of prophenoloxidase among hemocytes of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Tissue Cell 20: 599–610PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Ashida M, Kinoshita K, Brey PT (1990) Studies on prophenoloxidase activation in the mosquito Aedes aegypti. Eur J Biochem 188: 507–515PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Aso Y, Kramer KJ, Hopkins TL, Lookhart GL (1985) Characterization of haemolymph protyrosinase and a cuticular activator from Manduca sexta (L). Insect Biochem 15: 9–17Google Scholar
  15. Aspán A, Söderhäll K (1991) Purification of prophenoloxidase from crayfish blood cells and its activation by an endogenous serine proteinase. Insect Biochem 21: 363–373Google Scholar
  16. Aspán A, Hali M, Söderhäll K (1990a) The effect of endogenous proteinase inhibitors on the prophenoloxidase activating enzyme, a serine proteinase from crayfish haemocytes. Insect Biochem 20: 485–492Google Scholar
  17. Aspán A, Sturtevant J, Smith VJ, Söderhäll K (1990b) Purification and characterization of a prophenoloxidase activating enzyme from crayfish blood cells. Insect Biochem 20: 709–718Google Scholar
  18. Aspán A, Huang T-s, Cerenius L, Söderhäll K (1995) cDNA cloning of prophenoloxidase from the freshwater crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus and its activation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 92: 939–943PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Azumi K, Ozeki S, Yokosawa H, Ishii S-i (1991) A novel lipopolysaccharide-binding hemagglutinin isolated from hemocytes of the solitary ascidian, Halocynthia roretzi: it can agglutinate bacteria. Dev Comp Immunol 15: 9–16PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Barracco MA, Duvic B, Söderhäll K (1991) The ß-l,3-glucan-binding protein from the crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus, when reacted with ß-l,3-glucan, induces spreading and degranulation of crayfish granular cells. Cell Tissue Res 266: 491–497Google Scholar
  21. Beauvais A, Latgé J-P, Vey A, Prévost M-C (1989) The role of surface components of the entomopathogenic fungus Entomophaga aulicae in the cellular immune response of Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera). J Gen Microbiol 135: 489–498Google Scholar
  22. Beckage NE, Metcalf JS, Nesbit DJ, Schleifer KW, Zetlan SR, De Buron I (1990) Host hemolymph monophenoloxidase activity in parasitized Manduca sexta larvae and evidence for inhibition by wasp polydnavirus. Insect Biochem 20: 285–294Google Scholar
  23. Brehélin M, Drif I, Baud I, Boemare N (1989) Activation of pro-phenoloxidase in insect haemolymph: cooperation between humoral and cellular factors in Locusta migratoria. Insect Biochem 19: 301–307Google Scholar
  24. Brehélin M, Boigegrain RA, Drif L, Coletti-Previero MA (1991) Purification of a protease inhibitor which controls prophenoloxidase activation in hemolymph of Locusta migratoria (Insecta). Biochem Biophys Res Commun 179: 841–846PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Brookman JA, Ratcliffe NA, Rowley AF (1988) Optimization of a monolayer phagocytosis assay and its application for studying the role of the prophenoloxidase system in the wax moth Galleria mellonella. J Insect Physiol 34: 337–345Google Scholar
  26. Brookman J A, Ratcliffe NA, Rowley AF (1989a) Studies on nodule formation in locusts following injection of microbial products. J Invertebr Pathol 53: 315–323Google Scholar
  27. Brookman J A, Ratciffe NA, Rowley AF (1989b) Studies on the activation of the prophenoloxidase system in insects by bacterial cell wall components. Insect Biochem 19: 47–57Google Scholar
  28. Canicatti C, Gotz P (1991) DOPA oxidation by Holothuriapolii coelomocyte lysate. J Invertebr Pathol 58: 305–310Google Scholar
  29. Canicatti C, Seymour J (1991) Evidence for phenoloxidase activity in Holothuria tubulosa (Echino-dermata) brown bodies and cells. Parasitol Res 77: 50–53Google Scholar
  30. Cerenius L, Liang Z, Duvic B, Keyser P, Hellman U, Palva ET, Iwanaga S, Soderhall K (1994) A(1,3)-p-D-glucan binding protein in crustacean blood. Structure and biological activity of a fungal recognition protein. J Biol Chem 269: 29462–29467PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Christensen BM, LaFond MM (1986) Parasite-induced suppression of the immune response in Aedes aegypti by Brugia pahangi. J Parasitol 72: 216–219PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Collins FH, Sakai RK, Vernick KD, Paskewitz S, Seeley DC, Miller LH, Collins WE, Campbell CC, Gwadz RW (1986) Genetic selection of aPlasmodium-XQiractory strain of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. Science (Wash DC) 234: 607–610Google Scholar
  33. De Aragao GA, Bacila M (1976) Purification and properties of a polyphenoloxidase from the freshwater snail, Biomphalaria glabrata. Comp Biochem Physiol 54B: 179–182Google Scholar
  34. Dohke K (1973) Studies on prephenoloxidase-activating enzyme from cuticle of the silkworm Bombyx mori. II. Purification and characterization of the enzyme. Arch Biochem Biophys 157: 210–221PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Doolittle RF, Riley M (1990) The ammo-terminal sequence of lobster fibrinogen reveals common ancestry with vitellogenins. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 167: 16–19PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Dularay B, Lackie AM (1985) Haemocytic encapsulation and the prophenoloxidase-activiating pathway in the locustSchistocerca gregaria Forsk. Insect Biochem 15: 827–834Google Scholar
  37. Durliat M (1985) Clotting processes in Crustacea Decapoda. Biol Rev 60: 473–498Google Scholar
  38. Durrant HJ, Ratcliffe NA, Hipkin CR, Aspan A, Soderhall K (1993) Purification of the prophenol oxidase enzyme from haemocytes of the cockroach Blaberus discoidalis. Biochem J 289: 87–91PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Duvic B, Soderhall K (1990) Purification and characterization of a ß-1,3-glucan binding protein from plasma of the crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus. J Biol Chem 265: 9327–9332PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Duvic B, Soderhall K (1992) Purification and characterization of a ß-l,3-glucan binding protein membrane receptor from blood cells of the crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus. Eur J Biochem 207: 223–228PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Duvic B, Soderhall K (1993) ß-l,3-glucan-binding proteins from plasma of the freshwater crayfish Astacus astacus and Procambarus clarkii. J Crust Biol 13: 403–408Google Scholar
  42. Fujimoto K, Masuda K-i, Asada N, Ohnishi E (1993) Purification and characterization of prophe-noloxidase from pupae of Drosophila melanogaster. J Biochem (Tokyo) 113: 285–291Google Scholar
  43. Goldenberg PZ, Huebner E, Greenberg AH (1984) Activation of lobster hemocytes for phagocytosis. J Invertebr Pathol 43: 77–88PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Gunnarsson S, Lackie AM (1995) Haemocyte aggregation in the locust, Schistocerca gregaria, and the cockroach, Periplaneta americana, in response to injected molecules of microbial orgin. J Invertebr Pathol 46: 312–319Google Scholar
  45. Hall M, Soderhall K, Sottrup-Jensen L (1989) Amino acid sequence around the thiolester of macroglobulin from plasma of the crayfishPacifastacus leniusculus. FEBS Lett 254: 111–114PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Hara T, Miyoshi T, Tsukamoto T (1993) Comparative studies on larval and pupal phenoloxidase of the housefly, Musca domestica L. Comp Biochem Physiol 106B: 287–292Google Scholar
  47. Hergenhahn H-G, Aspan A, Soderhall K (1987) Purification and characterization of a high-Mr proteinase inhibitor of pro-phenoloxidase activation from crayfish plasma. Biochem J 248: 223–228PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Hergenhahn H-G, Hall M, Soderhall K (1988) Purification and characterization of an α2-macroglobulin-like proteinase inhibitor from plasma of the crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus. Biochem J 255: 801–806PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Huxham IM, Lackie AM (1988) Behaviour in vitro of separated haemocytes from the locust, Schistocerca gregaria. Cell Tissue Res 251: 677–684Google Scholar
  50. Huxham IM, Lackie AM, McCorkindale NJ (1989) Inhibitory effects of cyclidepsipeptides, destruxins, from the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae, on cellular immunity in insects. J Insect Physiol 35: 97–105Google Scholar
  51. Iwama R, Ashida M (1986) Biosynthesis of prophenoloxidase in hemocytes of larval hemolymph of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Insect Biochem 16: 547–555Google Scholar
  52. Iwanaga S (1993) Primitive coagulation systems and their message to modern biology. Thromb Haemostasis 70: 48–55Google Scholar
  53. Iwanaga S, Miyata T, Tokunaga F, Muta T (1992) Molecular mechanism of hemolymph clotting in Limulus. Thromb Res 68: 1–32PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Jackson AD, Smith VJ (1993) LPS-sensitive protease activity in the blood cells of the solitary ascidian Ciona intestinalis (L.) Comp Biochem Physiol 106B: 505–512Google Scholar
  55. Jackson AD, Smith VJ, Peddie CM (1993) In vitro prophenoloxidase activity in the blood of Ciona intestinalis and other ascidians. Dev Comp Immunol 17: 97–108PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Janeway Jr CA (1989) Approaching the asymptote? Evolution and revolution in immunology. Cold Spring Harbor Symp Quant Biol 54: 1–13PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Johansson MW, Soderhall K (1985) Exocytosis of the prophenoloxidase activating system from crayfish haemocytes. J Comp Physiol B 156: 175–181Google Scholar
  58. Johansson MW, Soderhall K (1988) Isolation and purification of a cell adhesion factor from crayfish blood cells. J Cell Biol 106: 1795–1803PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Johansson MW, Soderhall K (1989a) Cellular immunity in crustaceans and the proPO system. Parasitol Today 5: 171–176PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Johansson MW, Soderhall K (1989b) A cell adhesion factor from crayfish haemocytes has degranu-lating activity towards crayfish granular cells. Insect Biochem 19: 183–190Google Scholar
  61. Johansson MW, Soderhall K (1989c) A peptide containing the cell adhesion sequence RGD can mediate degranulation and cell adhesion of crayfish granular haemocytes in vitro. Insect Biochem 19: 573–579Google Scholar
  62. Johansson MW, Soderhall K (1992) Cellular defence and cell adhesion in crustaceans. Anim Biol 1: 97–107Google Scholar
  63. Johansson MW, Soderhall K (1993) Intracellular signaling in arthropod blood cells: Involvement of protein kinase C and protein tyrosine phosphorylation in the response to the 76 kDa protein or the ß-l,3-glucan-binding protein in crayfish. Dev Comp Immunol 17: 495–500PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Jomori T, Natori S (1991) Molecular cloning of cDNA for lipopolysaccharide-binding protein from the haemolymph of the American cockroach Periplaneta americana. J Biol Chem 266: 13318–13323PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Jomori T, Kubo T, Natori S (1990) Purification and characterization of lipopolysaccharide-binding protein from haemolymph of American cockroach Periplaneta americana. Eur J Biochem 190: 201–206PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Kawasaki K, Kubo T, Natori S (1993) A novel role ofPeriplaneta lectin as an opsonin to recognize 2-keto-3 deoxy octonate residues of bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Comp Biochem Physiol 106B: 675–680Google Scholar
  67. Kitano H, Wago H, Arakawa T (1990) Possible role of teratocytes of the gregarious parasitoid, Cotesia (=Apanteles) glomerata in the suppression of phenoloxidase activity in the larval host, Pieris rapae crucivora. Arch Insect Biochem Physiol 13: 177–185Google Scholar
  68. Kobayashi M, Johansson MW, Soderhall K (1990) The 76 kDa cell-adhesion factor from crayfish haemocytes promotes encapsulation in vitro. Cell Tissue Res 260: 113–118Google Scholar
  69. Kopacek P, Grubhoffer L, Soderhall K (1993a) Isolation and characterization of a hemagglutinin with affinity for lipopolysaccharide from plasma of the crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus. Dev Comp Immunol 17: 407–418PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Kopacek P, Hall M, Soderhall K (1993b) Characterization of a clotting protein, isolated from plasma of the freshwater crayfishPacifastacus leniusculus. Eur J Biochem 21: 591–597Google Scholar
  71. Krishnan G, Ravindranath MH (1973) Blood cell phenoloxidase of millipeds. J Insect Physiol 19: 647–653Google Scholar
  72. Leonard CM, Ratcliffe NA, Rowley AF (1985a) The role of prophenoloxidase acitivation in non-self recognition and phagocytosis by insect blood cells. J Insect Physiol 31: 789–799Google Scholar
  73. Leonard CM, Soderhall K, Ratcliffe NA (1985b) Studies on prophenoloxidase ancj, protease activity of Blaberus craniifer haemocytes. Insect Biochem 15: 803–810Google Scholar
  74. Liang Z, Lindblad P, Beauvais A, Johansson MW, Latge J-P, Hall M, Cerenius L, Soderhall K (1992) Crayfish a-macroglobulin and 76 kD protein; their biosynthesis and subcellular localization of the 76 kD protein. J Insect Physiol 38: 987–995Google Scholar
  75. Marmaras VJ, Bournazos SN, Katsoris PG, Lambropoulou M (1993) Defense mechanisms in insects: Certain integumental proteins and tyrosinase are responsible for non-self recognition and immobilization of Escherichia coli in the cuticle of developingCeratitis capitata. Arch Insect Biochem Physiol 23: 169–180PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Miyata T, Hiranaga M, Umezu M, Iwanaga S (1984a) Amino acid sequence of the coagulogen from Limulus polyphemus hemocytes. J Biol Chem 259: 8924–8933PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Miyata T, Usui K, Iwanaga S (1984b) The amino acid sequence of coagulogen isolated from Southeast Asian horseshoe crabTachypleus gigas. J Biochem (Tokyo) 95: 1793–1801Google Scholar
  78. Miyata T, Matsumoto H, Hattori M, Sasaki Y, Iwanaga S (1986) Two types of coagulogen mRNAs found in horseshoe (Tachypleus tridentatus) hemocytes: molecular cloning and nucleotide sequences. J Biochem (Tokyo) 100: 213–220Google Scholar
  79. Mullett H, Ratcliffe NA, Rowley AF (1993a) The generation and characterisation of anti-insect blood cell monoclonal antibodies. J Cell Sci 105: 93–100Google Scholar
  80. Mullett H, Ratcliffe NA, Rowley AF (1993b) Analysis of immune defences of the wax moth, Galleria mellonella, with anti-haemocytic antibodies. J Insect Physiol 39: 897–902Google Scholar
  81. Muta T, Miyata T, Misumi Y, Tokunaga F, Nakamura T, Toh Y, Ikehara Y, Iwanaga S (1991) Limulus factor C: An endotoxin sensitive serine protease zymogen with a mosaic structure of complement-like, epidermal growth factor-like, and lectin-like domains. J Biol Chem 266: 6554–6561PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Naqvi SNH, Karlson P (1979) Purification of prophenoloxidase in the haemolymph of Calliphora vicina (R. & D.). Arch Int Physiol Biochem 87: 687–695Google Scholar
  83. Ochiai M, Ashida M (1988) Purification of a ß-l,3-glucan recognition protein in the prophenoloxidase activating system from hemolymph of silkworm, Bombyx mori. J Biol Chem 263: 12056–12062PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Ourth DD, Renis HE (1993) Antiviral melanization reaction of Heliothis virescens hemolymph against DNA and RNA viruses in vitro. Comp Biochem Physiol 105B: 719–723Google Scholar
  85. Porchet-Honnere E (1990) Cooperation between different coelomocyte populations during the encapsulation response ofNereis diversicolor demonstrated by using monoclonal antibodies. J Invertebr Pathol 56: 353–361Google Scholar
  86. Preissner KT (1991) Structure and biological role of vitronectin. Annu Rev Cell Biol 7: 275–310PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Rantamaki J, Durrant H, Liang Z, Ratcliffe NA, Duvic B, Soderhall K (1991) Isolation of a 90 kDa protein from haemocytes of Blaberus craniifer which has similar properties to the 76 kDa protein from crayfish haemocytes. J Insect Physiol 37: 627–634Google Scholar
  88. Ratcliffe NA, Leonard CM, Rowley AF (1984) Prophenoloxidase activation: nonself recognition and cell cooperation in insect immunity. Science (Wash DC) 226: 557–559Google Scholar
  89. Ratcliffe NA, Rowley AF, Fitzgerald SW, Rhodes CP (1985) Invertebrate immunity: basic concepts and recent advances. Int Rev Cytol 97: 183–350Google Scholar
  90. Rizki RM, Rizki TM (1980) Developmental analysis of a temperature-sensitive mutant in Drosophila melanogaster. Roux’s Arch Dev Biol 189: 197–206Google Scholar
  91. Rizki RM, Rizki TM (1990) Encapsulation of parasitoid eggs in phenoloxidase-deficient mutants of Drosophila melanogaster. J Insect Physiol 36: 523–529Google Scholar
  92. Rowley AF, Brookman JL, Ratcliffe NA (1990) Possible involvement of the prophenoloxidase system of the locust, Locusta migratoria, in antimicrobial activity. J Invertebr Pathol 56: 31–38Google Scholar
  93. Ruoslahti E (1991) Integrins. J Clin Invest 87: 1–5Google Scholar
  94. Saul S, Sugumaran M (1986) Protease inhibitor controls prophenoloxidase activation in Manduca sexta. FEBS Lett 208: 113–116PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Saul S, Sugumaran M (1987) Protease mediated prophenoloxidase activation in the hemolymph of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta. Arch Insect Biochem Physiol 5: 1–11Google Scholar
  96. Seki N, Muta T, Oda T, Iwaki D, Kuma K, Miyata T, Iwanaga S (1994) Horseshoe crab (l,3)-ß-D-glucan-sensitive coagulation factor G. A serine protease zymogen heterodimer with similarities of ß-glucan-binding proteins. J Biol Chem 269: 1370–1374PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Shigenaga T, Muta T, Toh Y, Tokunaga F, Iwanaga S (1990) Antimicrobial tachyplesin peptide precursor: cDNA cloning and cellular localization in horseshoe crab (Tachypleus tridentatus). J Biol Chem 265: 21350–21354PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Smith VJ (1991) Invertebrate immunology: phylogenetic, ecotoxicological and biomedical applications. Comp Haematol Int 1: 61–76Google Scholar
  99. Smith VJ, Peddie CM (1992) Cell cooperation during host defense in the solitary tunicate Ciona intestinalis (L.). Biol Bull (Woods Hole) 183: 211–219Google Scholar
  100. Smith VJ, Söderhäll K (1983a) ß-l,3-glucan activation of crustacean haemocytes in vitro and in vivo. Biol Bull (Woods Hole) 164: 299–314Google Scholar
  101. Smith VJ, Söderhäll K (1983b) Induction of degranulation and lysis of haemocytes in the freshwater crayfish, Astacus astacus by components of the prophenoloxidase activating system in vitro. Cell Tissue Res 233: 295–303PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Smith VJ, Söderhäll K (1991) A comparison of phenoloxidase activity in the blood of marine invertebrates. Dev Comp Immunol 15: 251–261PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Smith VJ, Söderhäll K, Hamilton M (1984) ß-1,3-glucan induced cellular defence reactions in the shore crab, Carcinus maenas. Comp Biochem Physiol 77A: 635–639Google Scholar
  104. Söderhäll K (1981) Fungal cell wall ß-l,3-glucans induce clotting and phenoloxidase attachment to foreign surfaces of crayfish hemocyte lysate. Dev Comp Immunol 5: 565–573PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Söderhäll K (1982) Prophenoloxidase activating system and melanization - a recognition mechanism of arthropods? A review. Dev Comp Immunol 6: 601–611PubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. Söderhäll K, Ajaxon R (1982) Effect of quinones and melanin on mycelial growth ofAphanomyces spp. and extracellular protease of Aphanomyces astaci, a parasite on crayfish. J Invertebr Pathol 39: 105–109Google Scholar
  107. Söderhäll K, Aspän A (1993) Prophenoloxidase activating system and its role in cellular communication. In: Pathak JPN (ed) Insect immunity. Oxford and IBH, New Delhi, pp 113–129Google Scholar
  108. Söderhäll K, Häll L (1984) Lipopolysaccharide-induced activation of prophenoloxidase activating system in crayfish haemocyte lysate. Bioehim Biophys Acta 797: 99–104Google Scholar
  109. Söderhäll K, Smith VJ (1983) Separation of the haemocyte populations ofCarcinus maenas and other marine decapods, and prophenoloxidase distribution. Dev Comp Immunol 7: 229–239PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Söderhäll K, Smith VJ (1986) The prophenoloxidase activating system: the biochemistry of its activation and role in arthropod cellular immunity, with special reference to crustaceans. In: Brehelin M (ed) Immunity in invertebrates. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 208–223Google Scholar
  111. Söderhäll K, Unestam T (1979) Activation of serum prophenoloxidase in arthropod immunity. The specificity of cell wall glucan activation and activation by purified fungal glycoproteins of crayfish phenoloxidase. Can J Microbiol 25: 406–414PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Söderhäll K, Häll L, Unestam T, Nyhlen L (1979) Attachment of serum prophenoloxidase to fungal cell walls in arthropod immunity. J Invertebr Pathol 34: 285–294Google Scholar
  113. Söderhäll K, Levin J, Armstrong PB (1985) The effects of ß-l,3-glucans on blood coagulation and amoebocyte release in the horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus. Biol Bull (Woods Hole) 169: 661–674Google Scholar
  114. Söderhäll K, Smith VJ, Johansson MW (1986) Exocytosis and uptake of bacteria by isolated haemocyte populations of two crustaceans: evidence for cellular co-operation in the defence reactions of arthropods. Cell Tissue Res 245: 43–49Google Scholar
  115. Söderhäll K, Rögener W, Söderhäll I, Newton RP, Ratcliffe NA (1988) The properties and purification of a Blaberus craniifer plasma protein which enhances the activation of haemocyte prophenoloxidase by a ß-l,3-glucan. Insect Biochem 18: 323–330Google Scholar
  116. Söderhäll K, Aspän A, Duvic B (1990) The proPO system and associated proteins; role in cellular communication in arthropods. Res Immunol 141: 896–904PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Söderhäll K, Cerenius L, Johansson MW (1994a) The prophenoloxidase activating system and its role in invertebrate defence. In: Beck G, Cooper EL, Habicht GS, Marchalonis JJ (eds) Primordial immunity: foundations of the vertebrate immune system, vol 712. Ann NY Acad Sci, New York, pp 155–161Google Scholar
  118. Söderhäll K, Johansson MW, Cerenius L (1994b) Pattern recognition in invertebrates: The ß-1,3-glucan binding proteins. In: Hoffmann J, Janeway Jr C, Natori S (eds) Phylogenetic perspectives in immunity: the insect host defense. Molecular Biology Intelligence Unit. Randes, Austin, pp 97–104Google Scholar
  119. Sottrup-Jensen L, Stepanik TM, Kristensen T, Wierzbicki DM, Jones CM, Lonblad PB, Magnusson S, Petersen TE (1984) Primary structure of human a2-macroglobulin. V. The complete structure. J Biol Chem 259: 8318–8327PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Sottrup-Jensen L, Borth W, Hall M, Quigley P, Armstrong PB (1990) Sequence similarity between α 2-macroglobulin from the horseshoe crab, Limulus polyphemus, and proteins of the α2-macroglobulin family from mammals. Comp Biochem Physiol 96B: 621–625Google Scholar
  121. Spycher SE, Arya S, Isenman DE, Painter RH (1987) A functional, thiolester-containing α2-macroglobulin homologue isolated from the hemolymph of the American lobster(Homarus americanus). J Biol Chem 262: 14606–14611PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Srimal S, Miyata T, Kawabata S, Iwanaga S (1985) The complete amino acid sequence of coagulogen isolated from Southeast Asian horseshoe crab. Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda. J Biochem (Tokyo) 98: 305–318Google Scholar
  123. St Leger RJ, Cooper RM, Charnely AK (1988) The effect of melanization of Manduca sexta cuticle on growth and infection byMetarhizium anisopliae. J Invertebr Pathol 52: 459–470Google Scholar
  124. Stoltz DB, Cook DI (1983) Inhibition of host phenoloxidase activity by parasitoid Hymenoptera. Experientia 39: 1022–1024Google Scholar
  125. Sugumaran M, Saul SJ, Ramesh N (1985) Endogenous protease inhibitors prevent undesired activation of prophenoloxidase in insect haemolymph. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 132: 1124–1129PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Takle GB, Lackie AM (1986) Chemokinetic behaviour of insect haemocytes in vitro. J Cell Sci 85: 85–94PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Thornqvist P-O, Johansson MW, Soderhall K (1994) Opsonic activity of cell adhesion proteins and ß-1,3-glucan-binding proteins from two crustaceans. Dev Comp Immunol 18: 3–12PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Tomasini BR, Mosher DF (1990) Vitronectin. In: Coller BS (ed) Progress in hemostasis and thrombosis, vol 10. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 269–305Google Scholar
  129. Tsukamoto, T, Ichimaru Y, Kanegae N, Watanabe K, Yamaura I, Katsura Y, Funatsu M (1992) Identification and isolation of endogenous insect phenoloxidase inhibitors. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 184: 86–92PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Unestam T, Soderhall K (1977) Soluble fragments from fungal cell walls elicit defence reactions in crayfish. Nature (London) 267: 45–46Google Scholar
  131. Valembois P, Roch P, Gotz P (1988) Phenoloxidase activity in the coelomic fluid of earthworms. Dev Comp Immunol 13: 429–430Google Scholar
  132. Vargas-Albores F, Guzman M-A, Ochoa J-L (1993) A lipopolysaccharide-binding agglutinin isolated from brown shrimp (Penaeus californiensis Holmes). Comp Biochem Physiol 104B: 407–413Google Scholar
  133. Yokoo S, Tojo S, Ishibashi N (1992) Suppression of the prophenoloxidase cascade in the larval haemolymph of the turnip moth, Agrotis segetum by an entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema carpocapsae and its symbiotic bacterium. J Insect Physiol 38: 915–924Google Scholar
  134. Yoshida H, Ashida M (1986) Microbial activation of two serine enzymes in the plasma fraction of the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Insect Biochem 16: 539–545Google Scholar
  135. Yoshida H, Ochiai M, Ashida (1986) ß-l,3-glucan receptor and peptidoglycan receptor are present as separate entities within insect prophenoloxidase activating system. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 141: 1177–1184PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. W. Johansson
    • 1
  • K. Söderhäll
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Physiological BotanyUniversity of UppsalaUppsalaSweden

Personalised recommendations