A Theoretical and Experimental Investigation of Limit Strains in Sheet Metal Forming
In sheet metal forming operations the principal failure modes are localized necking or wrinkling. The strain in the sheet at the time when localization occurs is usually referred to as the Limit Strain, i.e. the principal surface strains ∈11 and ∈22. For different straining paths the limit strain can be plotted with the principal surface strains, ∈22 and ∈11, as Cartesian coordinates to form a Fail-Safe envelope known as the Forming Limit Diagram (FLD).
KeywordsAnisotropy Strain Hardening
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