A Theoretical and Experimental Investigation of Limit Strains in Sheet Metal Forming

  • L. Zhao
  • R. Sowerby
  • M. P. Sklad
Conference paper


In sheet metal forming operations the principal failure modes are localized necking or wrinkling. The strain in the sheet at the time when localization occurs is usually referred to as the Limit Strain, i.e. the principal surface strains ∈11 and ∈22. For different straining paths the limit strain can be plotted with the principal surface strains, ∈22 and ∈11, as Cartesian coordinates to form a Fail-Safe envelope known as the Forming Limit Diagram (FLD).


Sheet Metal Strain Rate Sensitivity Strain Path Limit Strain Form Limit Diagram 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. Zhao
    • 1
  • R. Sowerby
    • 1
  • M. P. Sklad
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringMcMaster UniversityCanada

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