Permian global bio-events have been largely overshadowed by the end-Permian mass extinction, the highest-order bio-event of the Phanerozoic, which seems to have affected much of the Upper Permian. Regional marine bio-events are known from Lower Permian, but lack of attention and correlation difficulties have made it difficult to determine whether these events are truly global in nature. At least two global tetrapods events are known from taxonomic studies during the Lower Permian but have not been tied to specific sections. The end-Permian Event is associated with numerous geologic, climatic and geochemical perturbations, several of which may have contributed to the extensive extinctions. Sea-level change and associated habitat destruction, climatic instability and other factors were particularly important.


Mass Extinction Flood Basalt Methane Hydrate Rugose Coral Siberian Trap 
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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Douglas H. Erwin
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Paleobiology, National Museum of Natural History, NHB-121Smithonian InstitutionUSA

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