An Estimate of the Early Tertiary Paleoclimate of the Southern Arctic

  • B. H. Tiffney
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (volume 27)

Abstract

The early Tertiary southern Arctic was an important biogeographic exchange route between the Old and New Worlds. A variant of the nearest living relative method of paleoclimatic estimation suggests that the mean temperature of the coldest month of the Eocene southern Arctic was about 10 °C, with the possibility of limited frost. The mean annual range of temperature was probably low, and moisture availability may have been limited in the cool season.

Keywords

Clay Migration Europe Cretaceous Holocene 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Axelrod D.I. (1984) An interpretation of Cretaceous and Tertiary biota in polar regions. Palaeogeog. Palaeoclim. Palaeoecol. 45: 105–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bailey I.W. and Sinnott E.W. (1916) The climatic distribution of certain types of angiosperm leaves. Amer. J. Botany 3: 24–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barron E.J. (1987) Eocene equator-to-pole surface ocean temperatures: A significant climate problem? Paleoceanogr. 2: 729–739.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Basinger J.F., Mclver E.E. and LePage B.A. (1988) The fossil forests of Axel Heiberg Island. The Musk Ox 36: 50–55.Google Scholar
  5. Boyd A. (1990) The Thyra O flora: Toward an understanding of the climate and vegetation during the early Tertiary in the high Arctic. Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol 62: 189–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Burckhalter R.E. (1992) The genus Nyssa in North America: a revision. Sida 15: 323–342.Google Scholar
  7. Chandler M.E.J. (1961) The Lower Tertiary Floras of Southern England, Volume I. Palaeocene Floras. London Clay Flora (Supplement). British Museum (Natural History) London.Google Scholar
  8. Chandler M.E.J. (1962) The Lower Tertiary Floras of Southern England, Volume II. Flora of the Pipe-Clay Series of Dorset (Lower Bagshot). British Museum (Natural History) London.Google Scholar
  9. Chandler M.E.J. (1964) The Lower Tertiary Floras of Southern England, Volume IV. A summary and survey of findings in the light of recent botanical observations. British Museum (Natural History) London.Google Scholar
  10. Corner E.J.H. (1966) The Natural History of Palms. University of California Press, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  11. Dolph G.E. (1979) Variation in leaf margin with respect to climate in Costa Rica. Bull. TorreyBot. Club 106: 104–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dolph G.E. and Dilcher D.L. (1979) Foliar physiognomy as an aid in determining paleoclimate. Palaeontographica, Abt. B., Paleophytologie 170: 151–172.Google Scholar
  13. Donn W.M. (1982) The enigma of high-latitude paleoclimate. Palaeogeog. Palaeoclim. Palaeoecol. 40: 199–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Elias T.S. (1980) The Complete Trees of North America, Field Guide and Natural History. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.Google Scholar
  15. Estes R. and Hutchison J.H. (1980) Eocene lower vertebrates from Ellesmere Island, Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Palaeogeog. Palaeoclim. Palaeoecol. 30: 325–347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Eyde R.H. (1963) Morphological and paleobotanical studies of the Nyssaceae, I. A survey of the modern species and their fruits. J. Arnold Arb. 44: 1–54.Google Scholar
  17. Eyde R.H., Bartlett A. and Barghoorn E.S. (1969) The fossil record of Alangium. Bull. TorreyBot. Club 96: 288–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Forman L.L. (1986) Menispermaceae. Flora Malesiana Series I 2: 157–253.Google Scholar
  19. Forman L.L. (1988) A synopsis of Thai Menispermaceae. Kew Bull. 43: 369–407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Frakes L.A. (1986) Mesozoic-Cenozoic climatic history and causes of the glaciation. Amer. Geophys. Union, Geodynamics Series 15: 33–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Geissert F., Gregor H.-J. and Mai D.H. (1990) Die cSaugbaggerflora’, eine Frucht- und Samenflora aus dem Grenzbereich Miozen-Pliozen von Sessenheim im Elsass (Frankenreich). Documenta Naturae 57: 1–207.Google Scholar
  22. Greenwood D.R. (1992) Taphonomic constraints on foliar physiognomic interpretations of Late Cretaceous and Tertiary paleoclimates. Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol. 71: 149–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hammel B.E. and Zamora N.A. (1990) Nyssa talamancana (Cornaceae), an addition to the remnant Laurasian Tertiary flora of southern Central America. Brittonia 42: 165–170.Google Scholar
  24. Hickey L.J. (1977) Stratigraphy and paleobotany of the Golden Valley Formation (Early Tertiary) of western North Dakota. Geol. Soc. Amer. Mem. 150: 1–181.Google Scholar
  25. Hills L.V., Klovan J.E. and Sweet A.R. (1974) Jttglans eocinerea n. sp., Beaufort Formation (Tertiary), southwestern Banks Island, Arctic Canada. Canadian J. Bot. 52: 65–90.Google Scholar
  26. Knobloch E. and Mai D.-H. (1986) Monographie der Früchte und Samen in der Kreide von Mitteleuropa. Rozpravy Ustredniho üstavu geologickeho 47: 1–219.Google Scholar
  27. Knobloch E., KvaSek Z., Buzek C., Mai D.H. and Batten D.J. (1993) Evolutionary significance of floristic changes in the Northern Hemisphere during the Late Cretaceous and Palaeogene, with particular reference to Central Europe. Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol. 78: 41–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Koch B.E. (1972) Coryphoid palm fruits and seeds from the Danian of Nügssuaq, West Greenland. Meddelelser om Gronland 193: 1–38.Google Scholar
  29. Kral R. (1960) A revision of Asimina and Deeringothamnus (Annonaceae). Brittonia 12: 233–278.Google Scholar
  30. Little E. L. Jr. (1977) Atlas of United States Trees. Vol. 4. Minor Eastern Hardwoods. In: United States Department of Agriculture, Forestry Service, Misc. Pub I. 1342.Google Scholar
  31. Little E.L.Jr. (1976) Atlas of United States Trees. Vol. 3. Minor Western Hardwoods. United States Department of Agriculture, Forestry Service, Misc. Pub I. 1314.Google Scholar
  32. Little E. L. Jr. (1977) Atlas of United States Trees. Vol. 4. Minor Eastern Hardwoods. In: United States Department of Agriculture, Forestry Service, Misc. Pub I. 1342.Google Scholar
  33. Mabberley D.J. (1987) The Plant-Book. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  34. Mai D.H. (1970a) Subtropische elemente im europäischen Tertiär I. Paleontologische Abhand. 3: 441–503.Google Scholar
  35. Mai D.H. (1970b) Fund von saurauia Willd. im europäischen Alttertier. Wissenschaftliche Zeitschrift der Friedrich-Schiller-Universitet Jena, Mathematisch-naturwissenschaftliche Reihe 19: 385–392.Google Scholar
  36. Mai D.H. (1976) Eozäne Floren des Geiseltales. Abhand. des Geologischen Instituts, Paläontologische Abhandlungen 26: 93–149.Google Scholar
  37. Mai D.H. (1980) Zur Bedeutung von relikten in der Florengeschichte. 100 Jahre Arboretum (1879–1979), Berlin: 281–307.Google Scholar
  38. Mai D.H. (1981) Entwicklung und klimatische Differenzierung der Laubwaldflora Mitteleuropas im Tertiär. Flora 171: 525–582.Google Scholar
  39. Mai D.H. (1987) Neue Früchte und Samen aus paläozänen Ablagerungen Mitteleuropas. Feddes Repertorium 98: 197–229.Google Scholar
  40. Mai D.H. and Walther H. (1978) Die Floren der Haselbacher Serie im Weisselster-Becken (Bezirk Leipzig, DDR). Abhand. des Staatlichen Museums für Mineralogie und Geologie zu Dresden 28: 1–200 + 101.Google Scholar
  41. Mai D.H. and Walther H. (1985) Die obereozänen Floren des Weisselster-Beckens und seiner Randgebeite. Abhand. des Staatlichen Museums für Mineralogie und Geologie zu Dresden 33: 1–260.Google Scholar
  42. Manchester S.R. (1987) The fossil history of the Juglandaceae. Missouri Bot. Garden Monogr. System. Bot. 21: 1–137.Google Scholar
  43. Manchester S.R. (in press) Fruits and seeds of the Middle Eocene Nut Beds flora, Clarao Formation, north-central Oregon. Palaeontographica Americana. Matthew K.M. (1977) Cornaceae. Flora Malesiana Series I 8: 85–97.Google Scholar
  44. Matthews J.V.Jr. and Ovenden L.E. (1990) Late Tertiary plant macrofossils from localities in Arctic/Subarctic North America - A review of the data. Arctic 43: 364–392.Google Scholar
  45. Mclver E.E. and Basinger J.F. (1989) The morphology and relationships of Thuja polaris sp. nov. (Cupressaceae) from the early Tertiary, Ellesmere Island, Arctic Canada. Canadian J. Bot. 67: 1903–1915.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. McKenna M.C. (1975) Fossil mammals and Early Eocene North Atlantic land continuity. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 62: 335–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. McKenna M.C. (1980) Eocene paleolatitude, climate, and mammals of Ellesmere Island. Palaeogeog. Palaeoclim. Palaeoecol. 30: 349–362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. McKenna M.C. (1983a) Holocene land mass rearrangement, cosmic events, and Cenozoic terrestrial organisms. Ann. Missouri Bot. Garden 70: 459–489.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. McKenna M.C. (1983b) Cenozoic paleogeography of North Atlantic land bridges. In: M.H. P. Bott, S. Saxov, M. Talwani and J. Thiede (eds.) Structure and Development of the Greenland-Scotland Ridge: 3 51–399. Plenum Press, N. Y.Google Scholar
  50. Miller K.G., Fairbanks R.G. and Mountain G.S. (1987) Tertiary Oxygen isotope synthesis, sea level history, and continental margin erosion. Paleoceanogr. 2: 1–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Nooteboom H.P. (1975) Revision of the Symplocaceae of the Old World, New Caledonia excepted. Leiden Bot. Ser. 1. University Press, Leiden.Google Scholar
  52. Palamarev E.H. (1988) Schefflera chandlerae sp. nov., a new subtropical element in the Bulgarian Neogene flora. Tert. Res. 9: 97–105.Google Scholar
  53. Reid E.M. and Chandler M.E.J. (1933) The London Clay Flora. British Museum (Natural Histoiy), London.Google Scholar
  54. Shelford V.E. (1913) Animal Communities in Temperate America. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.Google Scholar
  55. Sleumer H. (1960) Icacinaceae. In: J. Mattfeld (ed.) Die Natjrlichen flanzenfamlien. Band 20b: 322–396.Google Scholar
  56. Sleumer H. (1971) Icacinaceae. Flora Malesiana Series 1, vol 1: 1–87.Google Scholar
  57. Sloan L.C. and Barron E.J. (1992) A comparison of Eocene climate model results to quantified paleoclimatic interpretations. Palaeogeog. Palaeoclim. Palaeoecol. 93: 183–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Smith A.C. (1947) The families Illiciaceae and Schisandraeeae. Sargentia 1: 1–224.Google Scholar
  59. Smith A.G., Hurley A.M. and Briden J.C. (1981) Phanerozoic paleocontinental world maps. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  60. Soepadmo E. (1977) Ulmaceae. Flora Malesiana Series I, vol. 8: 31–76.Google Scholar
  61. Spicer R.A. and Chapman J.L. (1990) Climate change and the evolution of high-latitude terrestrial vegetation and floras. Trends in Ecol. and Evol. 5: 279–284.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Standley P.C. (1920) Trees and Shrubs of Mexico (Fagaceae-Fabaceae). Contributions from the U.S. National Herbarium 23: 169 pp.Google Scholar
  63. Standley P.C. (1922) Trees and Shrubs of Mexico (Fagaceae-Fabaceae). Contributions from the U.S. National Herbarium 23: 171–515.Google Scholar
  64. Standley P.C. (1923) Trees and Shrubs of Mexico (Oxalidaceae-Turneraceae). Contributions from the US. National Herbarium 23: 517–848.Google Scholar
  65. Standley P.C. (1924) Trees and Shrubs of Mexico (Passifloraceae-Scrophulariaceae). Contributions from the US. National Herbarium 23: 849–1312.Google Scholar
  66. Standley P.C. and Steyermark J. A. (1946) Flora of Guatemala, Part IV. Fieldiana: Botany 24: 1–493.Google Scholar
  67. Standley PC. and Williams L.O. (1966) Flora of Guatemala, Part VIII. Fieldiana: Botany 24: 1–210.Google Scholar
  68. Steyermark J.A. and Huber O. (1978) Flora del Avila. Publicaeiun Especial de la Sociedad Venezolana de Ciencias Naturales. Caracas.Google Scholar
  69. Taylor D.W. (1990) Paleobiogeographic relationships of angiosperms from the Cretaceous and Early Tertiary of the North American area. Bot. Rev. (Lancaster) 56: 279–417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Tiffney B.H. (1977) Contributions to a monograph of the fruit and seedflora of the Brandon Lignite. Ph.D. Dissertation, Harvard University, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  71. Tiffney B.H. (1979) The fruits and seeds of the Brandon Lignite III. Turpinia (Staphyleaceae). Brittonia 31: 39–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Tiffney B.H. (1980) The fruits and seeds of the Brandon Lignite V. Rutaceae. J. Arnold Arb. 61: 1–40.Google Scholar
  73. Tiffney B.H. (1981) Euodia coslata (Chandler) Tiffney, (Rutaceae) from the Eocene of southern England. Paleontologisches Zeitschrift 55: 185–190.Google Scholar
  74. Tiffney B.H. (1985a) Perspectives on the origin of the floristic similarity between eastern Asia and eastern North America. J. Arnold Arb. 66: 73–94.Google Scholar
  75. Tiffney B.H. (1985b) The Eocene North Atlantic land bridge: Its importance in Tertiary and modern phytogeography of the Northern Hemisphere. J. Arnold Arb. 66: 243–273.Google Scholar
  76. Tiffney B.H. (submitted) The age of the Brandon Lignite (Vermont) based on megafossils. Rev. Palaeobot. Palynol.Google Scholar
  77. Tiffney B.H. and Barghoorn E.S. (1979) The flora of the Brandon Lignite. IV. Illiciaceae. Amer. J. Bot. 66: 321–329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Tralau H. (1963) Asiatic dicotyledonous affinities in the Cainozoic flora of Europe. Kungl. Svenska Vetenskapsakademiens Handlingar, Fjerde serien 9: 1–87.Google Scholar
  79. Tralau H. (1964) The genus Nypa van Wurmb. Kungl. Svenska Vetenskapsakademiens Handlingar, Fjerde serien 10: 1–29.Google Scholar
  80. Uhl N.W. and Dransfield J. (1987) Genera Palmarum. A classification of palms based on the work of H. E. Moore, Jr. Allen Press, Lawrence, Kansas.Google Scholar
  81. van Beusekom C.F. (1971) Revision of Meliosma (Sabiaceae), section Lorenzanea excepted, living and fossil, geography and phylogeny. Blumea 19: 355–529.Google Scholar
  82. van Beusekom C.F and van de Water T.P.M. (1989) Sabiaceae. Flora Malesiana Series I, vol. 10: 679–715.Google Scholar
  83. van de Water T.P.M. (1980) A taxonomic revision of the genus Sabia (Sabiaceae). Blumea 26: 1–64.Google Scholar
  84. van Steenis C.G.G.J. (1954) Actinidiaceae. Flora Malesiana Series I, 4: 33–39.Google Scholar
  85. Walter H. and Lieth, H. (1960–1967) Klimadiagramm-Weltatlas. VEB Gustav-Fischer-Verlag, Jena.Google Scholar
  86. Wheeler E.A. and Baas P. (1993) The potentials and limitations of dicotyledonous wood anatomy for climatic reconstructions. Paleobiol. 19: 487–498.Google Scholar
  87. Whitlock C. and Dawson M.R. (1990) Pollen and vertebrates of the early Neogene Haughton Formation, Devon Island, Arctic Canada. Arctic 43: 324–330.Google Scholar
  88. Willis J.C. (1973) A Dictionary of the Flowering Plants and Ferns, 8th ed. In: H.K. Airy Shaw (ed.). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  89. Wing S.L. and Greenwood D.R. (1993) Fossils and fossil climate: The case for equable continental interiors in the Eocene. Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. of London, Ser. B - Biol. Sci. 341: 243–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Wolfe J.A. (1969) Neogene floristic and vegetational history of the Pacific Northwest. Madrono 20: 83–110.Google Scholar
  91. Wolfe J. A. (1971) Tertiary climatic fluctuations and methods of analysis of Tertiary floras. Paleogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol 9: 27–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Wolfe J. A. (1977) Paleogene floras from the Gulf of Alaska region. U.S. GeoL Surv. Prof. Pap. 997: 1–108.Google Scholar
  93. Wolfe J. A. (1978) A paleobotanical interpretation of Tertiary climates in the Northern Hemisphere. Amer. Sci. 66: 694–703.Google Scholar
  94. Wolfe J. A. (1979) Temperature parameters of humid to mesic forests of eastern Asia and relation to forests of other regions of the Northern Hemisphere and Australasia. U.S. Geol. Surv. Prof Pap. 1106: 1–37.Google Scholar
  95. Wolfe J. A. (1980) Tertiary climates and floristic relationships at high latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere. Palaeogeog. Palaeoclim. Palaeoecol. 30: 313–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Wolfe J.A. (1985) Distribution of major vegetational types during the Tertiary. Amer. Geophy. Union, Geophy. Monogr. 32: 357–375.Google Scholar
  97. Wolfe J. A. (1993) A method of obtaining climatic parameters from leaf assemblages. U.S. Geol. Surv. Bull. 2040: 1–71.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • B. H. Tiffney
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Geological SciencesUniversity of CaliforniaSanta BarbaraUSA

Personalised recommendations