• J. Wada
  • W. R. Ade


Twenty-five years have passed since Cooley implanted the first total artificial heart with four Wada valves in 1969[2]. Those years have seen a revolution in computer technology with the miniaturization of components and the sophistication of integrated circuits and, in the United States, have brought demands for environmental stress screening according to military standard procedures. This need for military standard processes and components may give competitive advantages to researchers in other countries, but it will definitely help to protect against component failure under long-term conditions.


Total Artificial Heart Rotary Blood Pump Transplantation Society Fuzzy Pattern Recognition Terminal Heart Failure 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Wada
  • W. R. Ade

There are no affiliations available

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