Chromium (Cr) toxicokinetics is the toxicokinetics of two different oxidation states, Cr(III) and Cr(VI), linked by reduction processes that are ubiquitous in body fluids and tissues. The kinetic behaviors of these two major oxidation states of chromium are very different. Reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) in the body, the lung, and the gastrointestinal tract is sufficiently rapid that bulk chromium kinetics may be considered to be the kinetics of Cr(III). However, certain detectable differences in chromium disposition depend upon whether exposure is to a Cr(III) or a Cr(VI) salt. In addition, the reduction process itself is of interest relative to the carcinogenicity of Cr(VI) in the lung. Therefore, a comprehensive understanding of the toxicokinetics of chromium must include the disposition of both Cr(III) and Cr(VI).
KeywordsTotal Chromium Chromium Compound Chromium Picolinate Lead Chromate Sodium Chromate
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Anderson RA, Polansky MM, Bryden NA, Canary J (1987) Supplemental chromium effects on glucose, insulin, glucagon, and urinary chromium losses in subjects consuming controlled low-chromium diets. Am J Clin Nutr 54:909–916Google Scholar
- Bishop C, Surgenor M (eds) (1964) The red blood cell:a comprehensive treatise. Academic, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- DeFlora S, Bagnasco M, Serra D, Zanacchi P (1990) Genotoxicity of chromium compounds. A review. Mutat Res 238:99–172Google Scholar
- Evans GW (1989) The effect of chromium picolinate on insulin controlled parameters in humans. Int J Biosoc Med Res 11:163–180Google Scholar
- Goyer RA (1990) Environmentally related diseases of the urinary tract. Environ Med 74:377–389Google Scholar
- Mertz W, Roginski EE (1971) Chromium metabolism:the glucose tolerance factor. In:Mertz W, Cornatzer WE (eds) Newer trace elements in nutrition. Dekker, New York, pp 123–153Google Scholar
- Mertz W, Roginski EE, Reba RC (1964) Biological activity and fate of trace quantities of intravenous chromium ( III) in the rat. Am J Physiol 209:489–494Google Scholar
- National Research Council (1989) RDA (Recommended Dietary Allowance), 10th edn. National Academy Press, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
- Witmer CM, Harris R (1991) Chromium content of bone after oral and intraperitoneal (ip) administration of chromium (VI) to rats (Abstr). Toxicologist 11:41Google Scholar
- World Health Organization (1988) Environmental health criteria 61:chromium. IPCS International Programme on Chemical Safety. World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar