Physico-Chemical Characteristics of Pine Needle Surfaces Exposed to Different Air Pollution Sources
The properties of pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needle epicuticular waxes and accumulated particulate matter were investigaged. Characteristics of needles of different ages, taken from sites with various levels and patterns of air pollution, were determined by the SEM + EDAX, TEM, labelling with 35SO2 technique, and contact angle measurements. The contact angles formed on current-year needles were found to be higher than those on 1-year-old needles. The values of contact angles ranged from 118 and 98° for the control sites to 68 and 43° for the most polluted area for current and 1-year-old needles, respectively. The 35SO2 uptake rate by needle surfac es showed the same pattern, except for needles from the vicinity of a cement plant, where needle surfaces were completely covered with dust. The SEM photos revealed gradual changes and the disappearance of fine wax structure with age of needles and air pollution level. Correlations between the analysed factors, as well as effects of surface roughness and chemical composition of particulate matter on the sulphur dioxide uptake rate, are analyzed.
KeywordsZinc Dioxide Dust Chloroform Wettability
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