Soil arthropods for faunal indices in assessing changes in natural value resulting from human disturbances

  • Roberto Pizzolotto
Conference paper
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (volume 20)

Abstract

The solution of a problem through technological innovation results in the creation of a new “space” for a new problem. This “spiral” evolution of human welfare has probably been primed (beginning from the modern age?) by the shift of every-day tools from a usage-value as survival instruments to a usage-value as profit instruments. The development of a new, man made, urban environment, and its unforeseeable and chaotic growth, led to changes in the equilibrium between natural and agricultural landscapes (Figure 1). Human activities cause a disturbance of the environment that can be either manifest immediately, or quantifiable only after long periods (storing effect). In the first case immediate monitoring equipment can be applied, but in the second case the assessment of human impact on the environment is often burdensome in terms of time and resources spent in research. Hence it follows that there is a need to find indicators of disturbance that are present in the study area and that can be measured quickly. Plants and animals answer to this need. It is likely that Clements with his “Plant indicators” (1920) was one of the first scientists who considered living organisms as test tools for the “health condition” of the environment (bioindicators). This point of view is now widely accepted, e.g. in Spellerberg (1991), who takes into account the importance of the integrating properties of living organisms for biological monitoring.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bedward M, Pressey RL, Nicholls AO (1991) Scores and Scores Classes for Evaluation Criteria: A Comparison Based on the Cost of Reserving all Natural Features. Biological Conservation, 56: 281–294Google Scholar
  2. Boer PJ den (1977) Dispersal Power and Survival. Carabids in a cultivated countryside. Miscellaneous Papers, 14. Landbouwhogeschool, Wageningen, the NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  3. Boer PJ den (1990) The Survival Value of Dispersal in Terrestrial Arthropods. Biological Conservation, 54: 175–192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Boer PJ den, Loevei GL, Stork NE, Sunderland KD (eds.) (1987) Proceedings of the 6th European Carabidologist’s Meeting. Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica, 22. Akademiai Kiado, BudapestGoogle Scholar
  5. Boer PJ den, Luff ML, Mossakowski D, Weber F (eds.) (1986) Carabids Beetles, Their Adaptations and Dynamics. Gustav Fischer, Stuttgart, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  6. Boer PJ den, van Huizen THP, den Boer W, Daanje B, Aukema B, den Bieman CFM (1980) Wing Polymorphism and Dimorphism as Stages in an Evolutionary Process ( Coleoptera, Carabidae). Entomologia Generalis, 6: 107–134Google Scholar
  7. Bohac J (1988) Die Ausnutzung von Raubkäfergemeinschaften (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae) für die Indikation der Umweltqualität. Pages 160–164 in Bohac J, Ruzicka V (eds.). Bioindicatores Deteriorisationis Regionis. Proceedings of the Vth International Conference. Ceske BudejoviceGoogle Scholar
  8. Bohac J (ed.) (1992) Bioindicatores Deteriorisationis Regionis. Proceedings of the VIth international conference. Ceske BudejoviceGoogle Scholar
  9. Bornkamm R, Lee JA, Seaward MRD (eds.) (1980) Urban Ecology. Blackwell Scientific Publications, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  10. Brandmayr P (1975) Un gruppo di invertebrati del suolo, i Coleotteri Carabidi, in relazione al grado di trasformazione dei biotopi agrari e forestali del basso Friuli: sua importanza per la ricostruzione ambientale. Informatore Botanico Italiano, 7: 237–243Google Scholar
  11. Brandmayr P (1983a) The main axes of the coenoclinal continuum from macroptery to brachyptery in carabid communities of the temperate zone. Pages 147–169 in Brandmayr P, den Boer PJ, Weber F (eds), The synthesis of field study and laboratory experiment in carabids, Report of the fourth meeting of European CarabidologistsGoogle Scholar
  12. Brandmayr P (1983b) Entomocenosi come indicatori delle modificazioni antropiche del paesaggio e pianificazione del territorio: esempi basati sullo studio di popolamenti a Coleotteri Carabidi. Atti 12° Congr. naz. ital. entomol., Roma 1980: 263–283Google Scholar
  13. Brandmayr P (1991) The reduction of metathoracic alae and of dispersal power of carabid beetles along the evolutionary pathway into the mountains. Pages 363–378 in Lanzavecchia G, Valvassori R (eds.). Form and function in zoology. Selected Symposia and Monographs U.Z.I., 5Google Scholar
  14. Brandmayr P, Colombetta G (1981) Criteri possibili per una valutazione quantitativa del carattere primario e della capacita‘ di ricostituzione spontanea di popolamenti indicatori a Coleotteri Geoadefagi del Carso Triestino. Atti 1° Cony. Ecol. Territ. Carsici: 183–188Google Scholar
  15. Brandmayr P, Pizzolotto R (1988) Indicatori “storici” ed ecologici nella coleotterofauna terricola delle foreste dell’Appennino Atti XV Congr. naz. ital. Entom.: 589–608 Google Scholar
  16. Brandmayr P, Pizzolotto R (1990) Ground beetle coenoses in the landscape of the Nebrodi Mountains, Sicily (Coleoptera Carabidae). Il Naturalista Siciliano, s.IV, XIV (suppl.): 51–64Google Scholar
  17. Brandmayr P, Codogno M, Pizzolotto R (1991) Bases for the ecological mapping of natural resources in Calabria: biomes and their subunits on the cross-section Catena Costiera - Sila Grande - Sila Greca (in Ital.). S.IT.E. Atti, 12: 389–393Google Scholar
  18. Brandmayr P, Cagnin M, Pizzolotto R, Mingozzi A, Tripepi S (1988) Acquedotto del Menta. Studio per la Valutazione di Impatto Ambientale. Allegato d2 ) Le risorse biologiche e il paesaggio. ELC-electroconsult, MilanoGoogle Scholar
  19. Cagnin M, R Venanzoni, P Brandmayr, R Canullo, F Dessi-Fulgheri, F Pedrotti (1991). The botanical, zoological and landscape resources in the study of environmental impact (EIA) “Menta Dam” (Aspromonte-Italy) (in ital.). S.IT.E. Atti, 12: 739–748Google Scholar
  20. Clements FE (1920) Plant Indicators. The relation of plant communities to process and practice. Carnagie Institution of WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  21. Desender K (ed.). (in print). Carabid Beetles - ecology and evolution. Kluwer Academic Publishers, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  22. Feoli E, Orloci L (1979) Analysis of concentration and detection of underlying factors in structured tables. Vegetatio, 40: 49–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ganin GN (1989) Role of diplopodes in disintegration and transformation of the forest litter in the south of Khabarovsk territory. Zool. Zh., 58, 1: 145–149Google Scholar
  24. Klausnitzer B (1987) Oekologie der Grosstadtfauna. Gustav Fischer, Stuttgart, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  25. Kurnetsova, Krivolutsky (1986) Invertebrates as a bioindicator of the environment in Moscow. Pages 109–113 in Paukert J, Ruzicka V, Bohac J (eds.). Bioindicatores Deteriorisationis Regionis. Proceedings of the IVth international conference. Ceske BudejoviceGoogle Scholar
  26. Lapka M, Gottlieb M, Cudlinova E (1992) Social indication of man niche. Pages 60–71 in Bohac J (ed.). Bioindicatores Deteriorisationis Regionis. Proceedings of the VIth international conference. Ceske BudejoviceGoogle Scholar
  27. Margules C, Usher MB, (1981) Criteria used in assessing wildlife conservation potential: a review. Biological Conservation, 21: 79–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Minelli A (1974) Studio preliminare della fauna di Treviso con riflessioni sulla fauna degli ambienti urbani. Atti Ist. Veneto Scienze, Lettere ed Arti. Cl. Scienze Matematiche e Naturali, CXXXII: 115–156Google Scholar
  29. Mingozzi A, Brandmayr P (1991) L’evaluation cartographique des ressources faunistiques: un example applique aux ornithocenoses d’une vallee alpine. Rev. Ecol. Alp., Grenoble: 1–21Google Scholar
  30. Mossakowski D, Fraembs H, Baro A (1990) Carabid beetles as indicators of habitat destruction caused by military tanks. Pages 237–243 in Stork NE (ed.). The Role of Ground Beetles in ecological and environmental studies. Intercept, Andover, HampshireGoogle Scholar
  31. Paoletti MG, Stinner BR, Lorenzoni GG (eds.) (1989) Agricultural Ecology and Environment. Elsevier, Amsterdam, Oxford, New York, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  32. Pearsall SH, Durham D, Eagar DC (1986) Evaluation methods in the United States. Pages 111–133 in Usher MB (ed.). Wildlife Conservation Evaluation. Chapman and HallGoogle Scholar
  33. Pielou EC (1979) Biogeography. Wiley & Sons, ChichesterGoogle Scholar
  34. Pizzolotto R (1993a) Ground beetles as a tool for environment management: a geographical information system based on Carabids and vegetation for the Karst near Trieste (Italy). in Desender K (ed.). Carabid Beetles - ecology and evolution (ed. K Desender). Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht (in print)Google Scholar
  35. Pizzolotto R (1993b) Carabid Beetle (Coleoptera, Carabidae) Coenoses for Evaluation of Faunal Resources and Impact Assessment in the Aspromonte National Park of Calabria (Italy). COENOSES: (in print)Google Scholar
  36. Pizzolotto R, Brandmayr P (1990) The Carabid Groupings of the Nebrodi Mountains in Sicily: Ecological and Historical Indicators. Pages 201–207 in Stork NE (ed.). The Role of Ground Beetles in Ecological and Environmental Studies. Intercept, LondonGoogle Scholar
  37. Ploeg SWF Van der (1986) Wildlife conservation evaluation in the Netherlands: a controversial issue in a small country. Pages 161–180 in Usher MB (ed.). Wildlife Conservation Evaluation. Chapman and Hall, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  38. Rushton SP, Eyre MD, Luff ML (1993) Modelling the consequences of land use change on the distribution of ground beetles. in Desender K (ed.). Carabid Beetles - ecology and evolution. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht (in print)Google Scholar
  39. Ruzicka V, Antus M (1989) 25-year changes in steppe spider communities in the surroundings of Lochkov at Prague. Pages 154–159 in Bohac J, Ruzicka V eds.). Bioindicatores Deteriorisationis Regionis. Proceedings of the Vth international conference. Liblice, PragueGoogle Scholar
  40. Sankovskii A (1992) Toward evaluation of natural objects. Environmental Management, 16: 283–287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Santas P (1986) Soil communities along a gradient of urbanization. Rev. Ecol. Biol. Sol., 23 (4): 367–380Google Scholar
  42. Soulé ME (1987) Introduction to Viable Population for Conservation. Pages 1–10 in Soulé ME (ed.).Cambridge University PressGoogle Scholar
  43. Spellerberg IF (1991) Monitoring ecological change. Cambridge University PressGoogle Scholar
  44. Sprugel DG (1985) Natural disturbance and ecosystem energetics. in Pickett STA,White PS (eds.). The Ecology of Natural Disturbance and Patch Dynamics.Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  45. Stork NE (ed.). (1990) The role of Ground Beetles in Ecological and Environmental Studies. Intercept, Andover-HampshireGoogle Scholar
  46. Straalen NM van, Kraak MHS, Denneman CM (1988) Soil microarthropods as indicators of soil acidification and forest decline in the Veluwe area, The Netherlands. Pedobiologia, 32: 47–55Google Scholar
  47. Šustek Z (1987)Changes in body size structure of carabid communities (Coleoptera,Carabidae) long an urbanisation gradient. Biologia, 42: 145–156Google Scholar
  48. Thiele HU (1977) Carabid Beetles in their environments. Springer Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  49. Toselli E, Ballarin L, Brandmayr P, Gombach ML, Juretig L, Perco F, Semeraro R (1982) La carta geologica della zona prevista per l’AREA di ricerca scientifica e tecnologica (a.R.S.T.) nella provincia di Trieste: mappa indicizzata di valutazione iniziale dello stato dell’ambiente naturale. Atti XVIII Convegno Naz. Assoc. Ital. Cartografia: 33–48Google Scholar
  50. Usher MB (1986) Wildlife conservation evaluation: attributes, criteria and values. in Wildlife Conservation Evaluation Pages 3–44. Chapman and Hall, London, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  51. Wagner DL, Liebherr JK (1992) Flightlesness in Insects. Trends in Ecology, Evolution, 7: 216–220Google Scholar
  52. Westhoff V (1971) The dynamic structure of plant communities in relation to the objectives of conservation. Pages 3–14 in Duffey E, Watt AS (eds.). The Scientific Management of Animal and Plant Communities for Conservation. Blackwell Scientific Publications, OxfordGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Roberto Pizzolotto
    • 1
  1. 1.Dipartimento di EcologiaUniversita‘della CalabriaRende (CS)Italy

Personalised recommendations