Advertisement

Diversity of Herbivorous Insects and Ecosystem Processes

  • Thomas M. Lewinsohn
  • Peter W. Price
Part of the Ecological Studies book series (ECOLSTUD, volume 121)

Abstract

Most general accounts of savanna ecology give little consideration to phytophagous animals (Walter 1971; Schnell 1973; Goodland and Ferri 1979; Sarmiento 1984). The major exception, of course, are African ungulate herbivores, whose impact on savanna and grassland ecosystems has received some attention (McNaughton 1976; Sinclair 1983). Plant-eating insects, on the other hand, are hardly mentioned except as pollinators (Cole 1986).

Keywords

Ecosystem Process Herbivorous Insect Seed Disperser Ecosystem Property Insect Diversity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bormann FH, Likens GE (1979) Pattern and process in a forested ecosystem. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Clay K, Marks S, Cheplick GP (1993) Effects of insect herbivory and fungal endophyte infection on competitive interactions among grasses. Ecology 74: 1767–1777CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cole MM (1986) The savannas: biogeography and geobotany. Academic Press, London Crawley MJ (1983) Herbivory; the dynamics of animal-plant interactions. Blackwell, Oxford Crawley MJ (1989) Insect herbivores and plant population dynamics. Annu Rev Entomol 34: 531–564Google Scholar
  4. Danell K, Huss-Danell K (1985) Feeding by insects and hares on birches affected by earlier moose browsing. Oikos 44: 75–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Faeth SH, Connor EF, Simberloff D (1981) Early leaf abcission: a neglected source of mortality for folivores. Am Nat 117: 409–415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Futuyma DJ, Wasserman SS (1980) Resource concentration and herbivory in oak forests. Science 210: 920–922CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Gillon Y (1983) The invertebrates of the grass layer. In: Bourlière F (ed) Tropical savannas. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 289–311Google Scholar
  8. Goodland R, Ferri MG (1979) Ecologia do Cerrado. Itatiaia and Editora da Univ Sao Paulo, Belo Horizonte and Sao PauloGoogle Scholar
  9. Grier CC, Vogt DJ (1990) Effects of aphid honeydew on soil nitrogen availability and net primary production in an Alnus rubra plantation in western Washington. Oikos 57: 114–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hairston NG, Smith FE, Slobodkin LB (1960) Community structure, population control, and competition. Am Nat 94: 421–425CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Harper JL (1977) Population biology of plants. Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  12. Hazen WE (ed) (1970) Readings in population and community structure, 2nd edn. Saunders, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  13. Huntly N (1991) Herbivores and the dynamics of communities and ecosystems. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 22: 477–503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Janzen DH (1970) Herbivores and the number of tree species in tropical forests. Am Nat 104: 501–528CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Julien MH (ed) (1987) Biological control of weeds: a world catalogue of agents and their target weeds, 2nd edn. CAB International, WallingfordGoogle Scholar
  16. Karban R, Strauss SY (1993) Effects of herbivores on growth and reproduction of their perennial host, Erigeron glaucus. Ecology 74: 39–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kelly CA (1986) Extrafloral nectaries: ants, herbivores and fecundity in Cassia fasciculata. Oecologia 69: 600–605CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lamotte M (1975) The structure and function of a tropical savannah ecosystem. In: Golley FB, Medina E (eds) Tropical ecological systems. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 179–222Google Scholar
  19. Lawton JH (1982) Vacant niches and unsaturated communities: a comparison of bracken herbivores at sites on two continents. J Anim Ecol 51: 573–595CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lawton JH, Brown VK (1993) Redundancy in ecosystems. In: Schulze ED, Mooney HA (eds) Biodiversity and ecosystem function. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 265–270Google Scholar
  21. Lawton JH, Lewinsohn TM, Compton SG (1993) Patterns of diversity for the insect herbivores on bracken. In: Ricklefs RE, Schluter D (eds) Species diversity in ecological communities. Univ Chicago Press, Chicago, pp 178–184Google Scholar
  22. Louda SM (1983) Seed predation and seedling mortality in the recruitment of a shrub, Haplopappus venetus (Asteraceae), along a climatic gradient. Ecology 64: 511–521CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Masters GJ, Brown VK, Gange AC (1993) Plant-mediated interactions between above-and below-ground insect herbivores. Oikos 66: 148–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Mattson WJ, Addy ND (1975) Phytophagous insects as regulators of forest primary productivity. Science 190: 515–522Google Scholar
  25. McBrien H, Harmsen R, Crowder A (1983) A case of insect grazing affecting plant succession. Ecology 64: 1035–1039CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. McEvoy P, Cox C, Coombs E (1991) Successful biological control of ragwort, Senecio jacobaea, by introduced insects in Oregon. Ecol Applic 1: 430–442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. McNaughton SJ (1976) Serengeti migratory wildebeest: facilitation of energy flow by grazing. Science 191: 92–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Meyer GA (1993) A comparison of the impacts of leaf-and sap-feeding insects on growth and allocation of goldenrod. Ecology 74: 1101–1116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Meyer GA, Root RB (1993) Effects of herbivorous insects and soil fertility on reproduction of goldenrod. Ecology 74: 1117–1128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Moran NA, Whitham TG (1990) Interspecific competition between root-feeding and leaf-galling aphids mediated by host plant resistance. Ecology 71: 1050–1058CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Murdoch WW, Evans FC, Peterson CH (1972) Diversity and pattern in plants and insects. Ecology 53: 819–829CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Owen DF, Wiegert RG (1987) Leaf eating as mutualism. In: Barbosa P, Schultz JC (eds) Insect outbreaks. Academic Press, San Diego, pp 81–95Google Scholar
  33. Parker MA, Root RB (1981) Insect herbivores limit habitat distribution of a native composite, Machaeranthera canescens. Ecology 62: 1390–1392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Polis GA (1991) Complex trophic interaction in deserts: an empirical critique of food-web theory. Am Nat 138: 123–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Root RB (1973) Organization of a plant-arthropod association in simple and diverse habitats: the fauna of collards (Brassica oleracea). Ecol Monogr 43: 95–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Sarmiento G (1984) The ecology of neotropical savannas. Harvard Univ Press, Cambridge (transl by Otto Solbrig )Google Scholar
  37. Schnell R (1973) Introduction à la phytogéographie des pays tropicaux. 2. Les milieux les groupements végétaux. Gauthier-Villars, ParisGoogle Scholar
  38. Sinclair ARE (1983) The adaptations of African ungulates and their effects on community function. In: Bourlière F (ed) Tropical savannas. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 401–426Google Scholar
  39. Southwood TRE, Brown VK, Reader PM (1979) The relationship of plant and insect diversities in succession. Biol J Linn Soc 12: 327–348CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Strauss SY (1991) Direct, indirect, and cumulative effects of three native herbivores on a shared host plant. Ecology 72: 543–558CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Strong DR, Lawton JH, Southwood R (1984) Insects on plants: community patterns and mechanisms. Blackwell, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  42. Swank WT, Waide JB, Crossley DA Jr, Todd RL (1981) Insect defoliation enhances nitrate export from forest ecosystems. Oecologia 51: 297–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Thomas CD (1986) Butterfly larvae decrease host plant survival in the vicinity of alternate host species. Oecologia 70: 113–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Vitousek PM (1990) Biological invasions and ecosystem processes: towards an integration of population biology and ecosystem studies. Oikos 57: 7–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Walter H (1971) Ecology of tropical and subtropical vegetation. Oliver and Boyd, EdinburghGoogle Scholar
  46. Whitham TG, Maschinski J, Larson KC, Paige KN (1991) Plant responses to herbivory: the continuum from negative to positive and underlying physiological mechanisms. In: Price PW, Lewinsohn TM, Fernandes GW, Benson WW (eds) Plant-animal interactions: evolutionary ecology in tropical and temperate regions. Wiley, New York, pp 227–256Google Scholar
  47. Williams AG, Whitham TG (1986) Premature leaf abscission: an induced plant defense against gall aphids. Ecology 67: 1619–1627CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thomas M. Lewinsohn
  • Peter W. Price

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations