Membrane Topology of the ADP/ATP Carrier from Mitochondria
The exchange between ATP generated by oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria and extramitochondrial ADP is catalysed by a specific carrier protein located in the inner mitochondrial membrane. Although ADP/ATP transport is well characterized on physiological and kinetic grounds, its detailed mechanism at the molecular level remains unknown. Due to severe difficulties encountered in the crystallisation of membrane transport proteins, no direct structural information on the ADP/ATP carrier is presently available. However, through a number of indirect approaches applied to the membrane-bound ADP/ATP carrier, it has been possible to propose a schematic view of the topographical organization of its polypeptide chain within the mitochondrial membrane. These approaches were theoretical and experimental, including prediction of the secondary structure from the amino-acid sequence, probing of binding sites with photochemical derivatives of inhibitors and substrates, and localisation of hydrophilic restricted segments of the peptide chain on one face of the membrane or the other using proteolytic and immunological techniques.
KeywordsBrown Adipose Tissue Beef Heart Mitochondrial Carrier CATR Binding Site Phosphate Carrier
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