Advertisement

Some General Lessons for Europe’s Migration Problem

  • Klaus F. Zimmermann
Part of the A Publication of the Egon-Sohmen-Foundation book series (EGON-SOHMEN)

Abstract

There are two dominant demographic factors that will determine the availability of human resources in Europe at the dawn of the 21st century: First, there is an overall picture of slowing population growth and persistent below-replacement fertility rates. At the turn ofthe century, this may create a vacuum on the European Community’s (EC) labor markets and hence population demandpull. Second, the intra-EC deregulation policies on the internal labor market and their effect on intra-EC labor migration will be dominated by substantial migration pressure caused by people from the East and the South of Europe, as well as from developing countries. There will be requests from many non-EC European countries either to be allowed to join the EC (probably with free labor mobility) or, at least, to allow their people to migrate to the center of Europe. Hence, there will be population supply-push.

Keywords

European Community Asylum Seeker Immigration Policy Social Security System Foreign Worker 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abowd, J.M., and R.B. Freeman. 1991 Immigration, Trade, and the Labor Market Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  2. Abowd, J.M., and R.B. Freeman. 1991. “Introduction and Summary.” In J.M. Abowd and R.B. Freeman (eds.) Immigration, Trade, and the Labor Market, pp. 1–25. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  3. Berry, A.R., and R. Soligo. 1969. “Some Welfare Aspects of International Migration.” Journal of Political Economy 77:778–794.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Borjas, G.J. 1990. Friends or Strangers: The Impact of Immigrants on the U.S. Economy. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  5. Borjas, G.J. 1991a. “Immigrants in the U.S. Labor Market: 1940–80.” American Economic Review 81:287–291.Google Scholar
  6. Borjas, G.J. 1991b. “National Origin and the Skills of Immigrants in the Postwar Period.” NBER Working Paper No. 3575. Cambridge, Mass.Google Scholar
  7. Borjas, G.J. 1991c. “Immigration Policy, National Origin, and Immigrant Skills: A Comparison of Canada and the United States.” NBER Working Paper No. 3691. Cambridge, Mass.Google Scholar
  8. Borjas, G.J. 1994. “Immigration, Ethnic Identity, and Assimilation: The Intergenerational Transmission of Immigrant Skills.” In this volume.Google Scholar
  9. Borjas, G.J., R.B. Freeman, and L.F. Katz. 1991. “On the Labor Market Effects of Immigration and Trade.” NBER Working Paper No. 3761. Cambridge, Mass.Google Scholar
  10. Brecher, R.A., and E.U. Choudhri. 1987. “International Migration versus Foreign Investment in the Presence of Unemployment.” Journal of International Economics 23:329–342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Butcher, K., and D. Card. 1991. “Immigration and Wages: Evidence from the 1980’s.” American Economic Review 81:292–296.Google Scholar
  12. Chiswick, B.R. 1994. “The Performance of Immigrants in the United States Labor Market.” In this volume.Google Scholar
  13. Coleman, D.A. 1991. “Demographic Projections: Is there a Need for Immigration?” Mimeo.Google Scholar
  14. Collins, S.M. 1991. “Immigrants, Labor Market Pressures, and the Composition of the Aggregate Demand.” In: J.M. Abowd and R.B. Freeman (eds.), Immigration, Trade, and the Labor Market, pp. 305–318. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  15. De New, J., and K.F. Zimmermann. 1993. “Native Wage Impacts of Foreign Labor: A Panel Analysis.” Munich, mimeo.Google Scholar
  16. Dustmann, C. 1992. “Earnings Adjustment of Temporary Migrants.” Forthcoming in 1993 in Journal of Population Economics. Google Scholar
  17. Espenshade, T.J. 1986. “Population Dynamics with Immigration and Low Fertility.” In: D. Kingsley, M.S. Bernstam, and R. Ricardo-Campbell (eds.), Below-Replacement Fertility in Industrial Societies: Causes, Consequences, Policies, pp. 248–261. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  18. Eurostat. 1991. “Demographic Indicators of the Community.” Paper presented at the Conference Human Resources in Europe at the Dawn of the 21st Century, Luxemburg, November 27–29.Google Scholar
  19. Felderer, B. 1994. “Can Immigration Policy Help to Stabilize Social Security Systems.” In this volume.Google Scholar
  20. Ferrie, J.P., and J. Mokyr. 1994. “Immigration and Entrepreneurship in the Nineteenth Century U.S.” In this volume.Google Scholar
  21. Gehrig, A., C.M. Schmidt, and K.F. Zimmermann. 1992. “Mass Migration, Unions, and Fiscal Migration Policy.” CEPR Discussion Paper No. 727. London.Google Scholar
  22. Greenwood, M.J., and J.M. McDowell. 1994. “The National Labor Market Consequences of U.S. Immigration.” In this volume.Google Scholar
  23. Grubel, H.G. 1994. “The Economics of International Labor and Capital Flows.” In this volume.Google Scholar
  24. Hatton, T.J., and J.G. Williamson. 1994. “International Migration and World Development: A Historical Perspective.” In this volume.Google Scholar
  25. Johnson, P., and K.F. Zimmermann. 1993 (eds.),.Labour Markets in an Ageing Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  26. OECD. 1988. Ageing Populations: The Social Policy Implications. Paris: OECD.Google Scholar
  27. Pischke, J.-S. 1992. “Assimilation and the Earnings of Guest workers in Germany.” Mannheim, mimeo.Google Scholar
  28. Pissarides, C.A., and I. McMaster. 1990. “Regional Migration, Wages and Unemployment: Empirical Evidence and Implications for Policy.” Oxford Economic Papers 42:812–831.Google Scholar
  29. Rivera-Batiz, F.L., and S.L. Sechzer. 1991. “Substitution and Complementarity between Immigrant and Native Labor in the United States.” In: F.L. Rivera-Batiz, S.L. Sechzer, and I.N. Gang (eds.), U.S. Immigration Policy Reform in the 1980s: A Preliminary Assessment, pp. 89–116. New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
  30. Schmidt, C.M. 1992. “The Earnings Dynamics of Immigrant Labor.” CEPR Discussion Paper No. 763. London.Google Scholar
  31. Sehgal, E. 1985. “Foreign Born in the U.S. Labor Market: The Results of a Special Survey.” Monthly Labor Review 108:18–24.Google Scholar
  32. Simon, J.L. 1989. The Economic Consequences of Immigration. Cambridge, Mass.: Basil Blackwell.Google Scholar
  33. Simon, J.L. 1994. “On the Economic Consequences of Immigration: Lessons for Immigration Policies.” In this volume.Google Scholar
  34. Stark, O. 1991. The Migration of Labor. Oxford and Cambridge, Mass.: Basil Blackwell.Google Scholar
  35. Stark, O. 1994. “Patterns of Labor Migration When Workers Differ in Their Skills and Information is Asymmetric.” In this volume.Google Scholar
  36. Statistisches Bundesamt. 1990. Statistisches Jahrbuch 1990 für das Ausland. Stuttgart: Metzler-Poeschel.Google Scholar
  37. Statistisches Bundesamt. 1991. Statistisches Jahrbuch 1991 für das Ausland. Stuttgart: Metzler-Poeschel.Google Scholar
  38. Statistisches Bundesamt. 1992. Statistisches Jahrbuch 1992 für das Ausland. Stuttgart: Metzler-Poeschel.Google Scholar
  39. Straubhaar, T., and K.F. Zimmermann. 1992. “Towards a European Migration Policy.” CEPR Discussion Paper No. 641. London.Google Scholar
  40. Winegarden, C.R., and L.B. Khor. 1991. “Undocumented Immigration and Unemployment of U.S. Youth and Minority Workers: Econometric Evidence.” Review of Economics and Statistics 73:105–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Winkelmann, R., and K.F. Zimmermann. 1992. “Ageing, Migration and Labour Mobility.” Forthcoming in P. Johnson and K.F. Zimmermann (eds.), European Labour Markets and the Challenge of Ageing. Google Scholar
  42. Zimmermann, K.F. 1992. “European Migration Policy.” International Economic Insights 3:7–10.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin · Heidelberg 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Klaus F. Zimmermann

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations