Despite the lessons to be learned from the thalidomide disaster some 20 years ago, recent studies indicate that pregnant women are still consuming therapeutic agents in alarming quantities. Moreover the developmental risks imposed by the maternal use of substances of abuse are, perhaps more than many other risk factors, preventable. The etiology of human malformations includes both (1) genetic factors and (2) drugs and environmental agents (for established teratogens see Brendel et al. 1985).


Cleft Palate Ethanol Exposure Cytosine Arabinoside Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Palatal Shelf 
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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1992

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  • I. Sauerbier

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