Metal-induced autoimmunity

  • Ph. Druet
Conference paper
Part of the Archives of Toxicology, Supplement 16 book series (TOXICOLOGY, volume 16)


Several metals have been known for a long time to be associated with immune-mediated pathological effects. These effects may be classified into two categories. Hypersensitivity reactions are the consequence of either cell-mediated or antibody (humoral)-mediated reactions against the metal which behave as a hapten. These manifestations represent an exageration of a normal immune response against an exogenous antigen. Autoimmune reactions represent quite different situations where the immune response, again either cell- or antibody-mediated, is directed against an autoantigen. In this review the second situation will be mainly considered. Before that the basis of the normal immune response will be summarized.


Antigen Present Cell Contact Dermatitis Mercuric Chloride Susceptible Strain Exogenous Antigen 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aten J, Veninga A, De Heer E, Rozing J, Nieuwenhuis P, Hoedemaeker PJ, Weening JJ (1991) Susceptibility to the induction of either autoimmunity or immunosuppression by mercuric chloride is related to the major histocompati- bility complex class II haplotype. Eur J Immunol 21:611–616.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Beaune Ph, Dansette PM, Mansuy D, Kiffel L, Finck M, Amar C, Leroux JP, Homberg JC (1987) Human anti-endoplasmic reticulum autoantibodies appearing in a drug-induced hepatitis are directed against a human liver cytochrome P-450 that hydroxylates the drug. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 84:551–555.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Carson DA (1992) Genetic factors in the etiology and pathogenesis of autoimmunity. FASEB J 6:2800–2805.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Druet E, Sapin C, Günther E, Feingold N, Druet P (1977) Mercuric chloride-induced anti-glomerular basement membrane antibodies in the rat. Genetic control. Eur J Immunol 7:348–351.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Dubey C, Kuhn J, Vial MC, Druet P, Bellon B (1993) Anti-interleukin-2 receptor monoclonal antibody therapy supports a role for Th-like cells in HgCI2-induced autoimmunity in rats. Scand J Immunol 37:406–412.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Goldman M, Druet P, Gleichmann E (1991) Th2 cells in systemic autoimmunity : insights from allogeneic diseases and chemically-induced autoimmunity. Immunol Today 12:223–227.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Kapsenberg ML, Van der Pouw-Kraan T, Stiekema FE, Schootemeijer A, Bos JD (1988) Direct and indirect nickel-specific stimulation of T lymphocytes from patients with allergic contact dermatitis to nickel. Eur J Immunol 18:977–982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Kapsenberg ML, Wienrenga EA, Bos JD, Jansen HM (1991) Functional subsets of allergen-reactive CD4+ T cells. Immunol Today 12:392–395.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Kisielow P, Swat W, Rochat B, Von Boehmer H (1991) Induction of immunological unresponsiveness in vivo and in vitro by conventional and super-antigens in developing and mature T cells. Immunol Rev 122:69–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Kroemer G, C arlos-Martinez A (1992) mechanisms of self- tolerance. Immunol Today 13:401–404.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Van der Meide PH, de Labie MCDC, Botman CAD, Van Bennekom WP, Olsson T, Aten J, Weening JJ (1993) Mercuric chloride down-regulates T cell interferon-gamma production in Brown-Norway but not in Lewis rats; role of glutathione. Eur J Immunol 23:675–681.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Mirtcheva J, Pfeiffer C, Bruijn JA, Jacquesmart F, Gleichmann E (1989) Immunological alterations inducible by mercury compounds. III. H-2A acts as an immune response and H-2E as an immune “suppression” locus for HgCI2-induced antinucleolar autoantibodies. Eur J Immunol 19:2257–2261.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Mosmann TR, Schumacher JH, Street NF, Budd R, O’Garra A, Fong TAT, Bond MW, Moore KWM, Sher A, Florentino DF (1991) Diversity of cytokine synthesis and function of mouse CD4+ T cells. Immunol Rev 123:209–229.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ochel M, Vohr HW, Pfeiffer C, Gleichmann E (1991) IL-4 is required for the IgE and IgGl increase and IgGl autoantibody formation in mice treated with mercuric chloride. J Immunol 146:3006–3011PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Pelletier L, Pasquier R, Guettier C, Vial MC, Mandet C, Nochy D, Bazin H, Druet P (1988)Autoreactive T cells in mercury-induced autoimmunity. Ability to induce the disease. J Immunol 140:750–754.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Romagnoli P, Labhardt AM, Sinigaglia F (1991) Selective interaction of Ni with an MHC-bound peptide. EMBO J 10:1303–1306.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Romagnoli P, Spinas GA, Sinigaglia E (1992) Gold-specific T cells in rheumatoid arthritis patients treated with gold. J Clin Invest 89:254–258.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Schwartz RH (1985) T-lymphocyte recognition of antigen in association with gene products of the major histocompatibility complex. Ann Rev Immunol 3:237–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Springer TA (1990) Adhesion receptors of the immune system. Nature 346:425–434.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ph. Druet
    • 1
  1. 1.Hôpital BroussaisINSERM U 28ParisFrance

Personalised recommendations