Ecology of the Baltic — Introduction

  • M. Pliński
Conference paper
Part of the Archives of Toxicology, Supplement 16 book series (TOXICOLOGY, volume 16)


The Baltic Sea with 366,000 km2 is only 0.1% of the world’s oceans but nevertheless, unique in many ways. The Baltic Sea is the largest area of brackish water in the world. As a formation of nature, it is a sea that in many ways resembles a lake. This makes its flora and fauna interesting and well adapted to the brackish water environment. The recent stage of biocoenosis composition is influenced by several features. Historically, during the last glaciation, when the Baltic was sometimes a huge marine bay and sometimes a large, freshwater lake, several ecosystems developed and were successively replaced. The flora and fauna composition of those previous biocoenosis was discovered from the geological layers corresponding to the Yoldic Sea, the Ancylus Lake and the Littorina Sea periods. Recently the marine influence has come from the North Sea water inflow, which greatly affects the salinity of the deep water. The freshwater influence comes from the fluvial water which gives the surface layer a lower salinity value.


Bottom Water Splash Zone Gdansk Deep Brackish Water Environment Ancylus Lake 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1994

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Pliński
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of OceanographyGdańsk UniversityGdyniaPoland

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