Molecular Aspects of Natural and Induced Incompatibility in Flowering Plants
Evolutionary success of the angiosperms is based to a considerable extent on the development of a great diversity of flowers, which are adapted to ensure efficient reproduction. Thus, carpels protect the ovules and the stigma receives the pollen grains, which after germination form a tube growing through the stylar tissue. The pollen tube delivers two generative nuclei to the embryo sac for a double fertilization. In order to increase cross-pollination leading to genetic recombination, a number of mechanisms have evolved. Besides architectural features of the flower and adaptations to insect pollination, cell biological systems contribute to the promotion of cross-fertilization.
KeywordsPollen Tube Male Sterility Cytoplasmic Male Sterility Tapetal Cell Fertility Restoration
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