• Alexander S. Mikhailov
Part of the Springer Series in Synergetics book series (SSSYN, volume 51)


If you look in the Concise Oxford Dictionary of current English, you will find that the word “synergetics” does not appear there. However, the dictionary does contain the term synergy which is interpreted as “a combined effect of drags, organs, etc. that exceeds the sum of their individual effects” and is derived from the Greek synergos, working together. Synergetics, as a separate interdisciplinary research direction, was introduced only about two decades ago by H. Haken [1.1,2] who had noticed profound similarities between the fundamental mathematical models which are used to describe the cooperative behavior of active systems in physics, chemistry, biology, and social sciences.


Active System Cellular Automaton Analog Machine Associative Memory Cooperative Behavior 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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    H. Haken: Synergetics. An Introdution Springer Ser. Synergetics. Vol. 1 (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg 1978)Google Scholar
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    L. von Bertalanffy: Problems of Life (Watts, London 1952)Google Scholar
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    A.S. Mikhailov: “Engineering of dynamical systems for pattern recognition and information processing” in Nonlinear Waves. Dynamics and Evolution, ed. by A.V. Gaponov-Grekhov, M.I. Rabinovich (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg 1989)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alexander S. Mikhailov
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PhysicsMoscow State UniversityMoscowUSSR

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