A Model of Leukocyte Adhesion to Vascular Endothelium
The dynamic interaction between the adhesion receptors expressed by leukocytes and endothelium controls the vital process of leukocyte entry into tissues. The process is viewed as a cascade of receptor/ligand inteactions in which each event makes possible the next. The four identified stages are descriptively termed “tethering”, “triggering”, “gluing” and “transmigration” (Table 1). At least three families of adhesion molecules participate in these events. They are (1) the selectins, with members L-selectin, E-selectin and P-selectin; (2) the integrins, with relevant receptors being the β2 integrins LFA-1 (CD11 a), CR3 (Mac1 /CD11 b) and β1 integrin VLA-4 and (3) certain members of the immunoglobulin super-family (IgSF), in particular ICAM-1, ICAM-2 and VCAM-1. At present the triggering stage which causes integrin activation is the least well understood. This is accomplished remotely by signalling through other membrane receptors, very few of which can be viewed as conventional adhesion receptors. Variation in the combinations of adhesion and signalling molecules offers the means by which specific leukocyte subsets are selectively recruited to particular tissues. This review offers a summary of present ideas about the sequence of adhesive events which occurs between leukocytes and endothelium and there are many other excellent recent reviews on this fast moving and important topic (Butcher 1991; Hogg 1992; Mcever 1992; Picker 1992; Schweighoffer and Shaw 1992; Zimmerman et al. 1992).
KeywordsLeukocyte Adhesion Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency Lymphocyte Homing Sulfated Glycan Adhesion Cascade
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