A detailed description of the process can only be made with respect to specific materials. The wide applicability of the technique — from materials like bismuth which melts at only 271 °C  up to refractory oxides melting at temperatures approaching 2500 °C  necessitates a diverse technology. There is no such thing as the universal crystal pulling machine. However, research pullers are usually modular in construction to permit fitment of different heaters, chambers etc. Commercial pullers, on the other hand, are designed for one specific material; indeed often for just one specific size and specification of single crystal of that material.
KeywordsQuartz Graphite Zirconia Convection Chromium
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