Regeneration of plants from Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) Protoplasts by Direct Embryogenesis

  • J. Song
  • E. L. Sorensen
  • G. H. Liang
Part of the Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry book series (AGRICULTURE, volume 23)


Alfalfa plants are usually regenerated from protoplasts with an intervening callus stage (Johnson et al. 1981; Arcioni et al. 1982; Atanassov and Brown 1984; Pezzotti et al. 1984). Because considerable somaclonal variation could occur during callus development and growth (Bingham et al. 1988), direct embryogenesis, whereby the callus stage is bypassed or maintained for a very short period, appears to be advantageous in preserving genetic identity and reducing the time required for the operation, especially for protoplast fusion, microinjection, and direct transfer of specific genes to produce transgenic plants.


Somatic Embryogenesis Mesophyll Protoplast Medicago Sativa Protoplast Culture Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Song
    • 1
  • E. L. Sorensen
    • 2
  • G. H. Liang
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of BiochemistryKansas State UniversityManhattanUSA
  2. 2.Department of Agronomy, USDA-ARSKansas State UniversityManhattanUSA

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