Transformation in Spruce (Picea Species)

  • D. Ellis
Part of the Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry book series (AGRICULTURE, volume 23)


The availability of a wide variety of regeneration systems makes Picea one of the best model species within the gymnosperms for genetic engineering. Tissue culture systems exist for the regeneration of whole plants from several Picea tissues as well as the regeneration of plants from protoplasts, embryogenic callus, and suspension cultures (Attree et al. 1991; Harry and Thorpe 1991). Genes have been transferred into and expressed in virtually all tissues capable of regeneration in Picea by a wide array of different gene transfer methods. Numerous Agrobacterium strains infectious to Picea spp. have been identified, and expression of the Agrobacterium T-DNA genes has been confirmed by opine production. Electroporation and direct DNA uptake with PEG have been used to introduce and express foreign genes in protoplasts from two Picea spp. Further, the use of particle acceleration has demonstrated that genes could be inserted and expressed in virtually every tissue thus far tested in Picea including megagametophytes, embryos, embryogenic callus, seedlings, and meristems. Finally, particle acceleration has been used to stably integrate foreign DNA into Picea glauca (white spruce) and transformed plants have been regenerated which contain and express the inserted genes. Clearly, the adaptability of various gene transfer methods from angiosperms to Picea have been the key to the success of gene transfer in this genus.


Somatic Embryo Embryogenic Callus Zygotic Embryo Chloramphenicol Acetyl Transferase Transient Gene Expression 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. Ellis
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of HorticultureUniversity of Wisconsin-MadisonMadisonUSA

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