Regeneration of Plants from Protoplasts of Pelargonium spp. (Geranium)

  • K. B. Dunbar
Part of the Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry book series (AGRICULTURE, volume 22)


Pelargonium species comprise one of the most popular groups of flowering potted plants in the world (Wood 1966). Most cultivated Pelargonium plants are grown for their colorful showy flowers, others for their scented foliage and exotic leaf shapes. The genus Pelargonium contains approximately 300 species, most of which are native to South Africa (Moore 1971). Pelargonium zonale was first introduced into Europe in 1609 (Ewart 1980). Currently, P. x hortorum L.H. Bailey (garden geranium), P. x domesticum L.H. Bailey (regal geranium), and P. peltatum (ivy geranium) are the most economically important Pelargonium species. Records of the crosses that produced the hybrid species were not kept. Pelargonium x hortorum is thought to have originated from four wild species: P. zonale, P. inquinans, P. frutetorum, and P. scandens. Pelargonium x domesticum is thought to have originated from seven wild species: P. angulosum, P. betulinum, P. capitatum, P. cordifolium, P. cucullatum, P.fulgidum, and P. grandiflorum (Ewart 1980).


Bacterial Blight Protoplast Isolation Albino Plant Green Sector Pelargonium Species 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Abo El-Nil MM, Hildebrandt AC (1976) Cell wall regeneration and colony formation from isolated single geranium protoplasts in microculture. Can J Bot 54:1530–1534.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Dunbar KB, Stephens CT (1989a) Regeneration of Pelargonium x hortorum plants from protoplasts and screening protoclones for resistance to bacterial blight. In Vitro 25:31A.Google Scholar
  3. Dunbar KB, Stephens CT (1989b) Shoot regeneration of hybrid seed geranium (Pelargonium x hortorum) and regal geranium (Pelargonium x domesticum) from primary callus cultures. Plant Cell Tissue Organ Cult 19:13–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Dunbar KB, Stephens CT (1991) Plant regeneration from callus-derived protoplasts of Pelargonium x domesticum. Plant Cell Rep 10:417–420.Google Scholar
  5. Ewart LC (1980) Utilization of flower germ plasm. HortScience 16:135–137.Google Scholar
  6. Frearson E, Power JB, Cocking EC (1973) The isolation, culture and regeneration of Petunia leaf protoplasts. Dev Biol 33:130–137.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Hanniford GC, Holcomb EJ (1982) Regal geraniums. In: Mastalerz JW, Holcomb EJ (eds) Geranium III. Pennsylvania Flower Growers. University Park, PA, pp 161–169.Google Scholar
  8. Kameya T (1973) The effects of gelatin on aggregation of protoplasts from higher plants. Planta 115:77–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Kameya T (1975) Culture of protoplasts from chimeral plant tissue of nature. Jpn J Genet 50:417–420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Kameya T, Uchimiya H (1972) Embryoids derived from isolated protoplasts of carrot. Planta 103:356–360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Menczel L, Nagy F, Kiss ZSR, Maliga P (1981) Streptomycin resistant and sensitive somatic hybrids of Nicotiana tabacum and Nicotiana kightiana: correlation of resistance to N. tabacum plastids. Theor Appl Genet 59:191–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Moore HE (1971) Plant classification 3: Taxonomy of Pelargoniums in cultivation. In: Mastalerz JM (ed) Geraniums, a Penn State Manual. Pennsylvania Flower Growers, University Park, PA, pp 14–15.Google Scholar
  13. Murashige T, Skoog F (1962) A revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco cultures. Physiol Plant 15:473–597.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Nelson PE, Nichols LP (1982) Bacterial blight. In: Mastalerz JW, Holcomb EJ (eds) Geraniums III. Pennsylvania Flower Growers. University Park, PA, pp 221.Google Scholar
  15. Wood HJ (1966) In: Pelargoniums: a complete guide to their cultivation. Wheaton & Co., Exeter, Great Britain, pp 17.Google Scholar
  16. Yarrow SA, Cocking EC, Power JB (1987) Plant regeneration from cultured cell-derived protoplasts of Pelargonium aridum, P. x hortorum and P. peltatum. Plant Cell Rep 6:102–104.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. B. Dunbar
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Natural Science and MathematicsDalton CollegeDaltonUSA

Personalised recommendations