Significance of Prenatally or Early Postnatally-Induced Organ Dysfunctions — Other than CNS Defects
Within the framework of registration of medicinal products extensive studies for reproductive toxicity are required to identify possible hazards. However, the routinely conducted studies on fertility, embryo/fetotoxicity — including teratogenicity — and postnatal manifestations of prenatally induced lesions are not always sufficient to detect the toxic potential of chemical substances on reproductive and developmental functions. Furthermore, the induction of adverse effects is not confined to the prenatal period, and the newborn and infant may be more vulnerable to a given chemical than the adult organism. Consequently, such hazards are not recognized and therefore potential risks cannot be fully assessed. In this paper we will discuss three examples to elucidate that, e.g., “functional anomalies” are not detected with the administratively required and routinely performed tests.
KeywordsUrea Concentration Prenatal Exposure Male Offspring Systolic Arterial Pressure Muscle Larva
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Lode H, Höffken G, Olschewski P, Sievers B, Kirch A, Borner K, Koeppe P (1987) Pharmacokinetics of ofloxacin after parenteral and oral administration. Antimicrob Ag Chemother 31: 1338–1342.Google Scholar
- Neubert D, Neubert R, Stahlmann R, Helge H (1989) Immuno-toxicology and-pharmacology. Brazilian J Med Biol Res 22: 1457–1473.Google Scholar
- Okazaki O, Kurata T, Hashimoto K, Sudo K, Tsumura M, Tachizawa H (1984) Metabolic disposition of DL-8280. The second report: absorption, distribution and excretion of 14C-DL-8280 in various animal species. Chemotherapy 32: 1185–1202.Google Scholar
- Pertuiset E, Lenoir G, Jehanne M, Douchain F, Guillot M, Menkes CJ (1989) Tolérance articulaire de la péfloxacine et de l’ofloxacine chez les enfants et adolescents atteints de mucoviscidose. Revue du Rhumatisme 56: 735–740.Google Scholar
- Stahlmann R, Chahoud I (1985) Prenatally induced kidney impairment by treatment with gentamicin and pharmacokinetics of the antibiotic in pregnant rats. Naunyn-Schmied Arch Pharmacol 329: R32 (Abstract 125).Google Scholar
- Stahlmann R, Blankenburg G, Chahoud I, Webb J, Merker H-J, Hinz N, Neubert, D (1988c) Effects of quinolones on joint cartilage in juvenile rats and marmosets. In: Neubert D, Merker H-J, Hendrickx A (eds), Non-human Primates — Developmental Biology and Toxicology, Überreuter Wissenschaftsverlag, Berlin, pp 547–565.Google Scholar
- Stahlmann R, Chahoud I, Korte M, Thiel R, van Loveren H, Vos JG, Förster M, Merker H-J, Neubert D (1990b) Structural anomalies of thymus and other organs and impaired resistance to Trichinella spiralis infection in rats after prenatal exposure to aciclovir. In: Kendall MD and Ritter MA, eds. Thymus Update, Vol 4, Harwood, Chur, London, Paris, New York, Melbourne, pp 129-155.Google Scholar
- Stahlmann R, Korte M, van Loveren H, Vos JG, Thiel R, Neubert D (1992) Abnormal thymus development and impaired function of the immune system in rats after prenatal exposure to aciclovir. Arch Toxicol (in press).Google Scholar