Learning Together Apart

  • Anthony Kaye
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (volume 90)

Abstract

This paper defines collaborative learning as “individual learning occurring as a result of group process”, and examines some of the issues and problems in using computer-mediated communication (CMC) for collaborative learning. A number of typical applications of computer conferencing, in both the educational context (where learning is the explicit primary goal, as in a course or training programme) and the organisational context (where learning might be a desirable, but secondary, outcome of a task-oriented activity), are reviewed. The influences of social climate, a text-based asynchronous communication environment, and software design features, on the success or failure of CMC for collaborative learning are examined.

Keywords

peer learning cooperative learning collaborative learning process loss organisational learning computer-mediated communication (CMC) shared space virtual seminar online classroom online games computer-supported writing distance education adjunct lecture-room adjunct education utility project group computer conferencing message organisational networking social climate software environment interface design groupware lexical density 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Ancona, D.G., and Caldwell, D.F.: Information technology and work groups: the case of new product teams. In: Intellectual teamwork: social and technological foundations of cooperative work (J.Galegher, R.E. Kraut, C. Egido, eds.). Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum 1990Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bannon, L.: Issues in computer-supported collaborative learning. In: Computer supported collaborative learning. (C. O’Malley, ed.). Heidelberg: Springer Verlag (in press)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Beard, R. and Hartley, J.: Teaching and learning in higher education. London: Harper and Row 1984Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Boyd, R.D., and Apps, J.W.: Redefining the discipline of adult education. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass 1980Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bruner, J. S.: Actual minds, possible worlds. London: Harvard University Press, 1984Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Damon, W.: Peer education: the untapped potential. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 5, pp. 331–343 (1984)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Edwards, D., and Mercer, N.: Common knowledge: the development of understanding in the classroom. London: Routledge, 1987Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Fafchamps, D., Reynolds, D., and Kuchinsky, D.: The dynamics of small group decision-making over the e-mail channel. Proceedings of the First European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work. Gatwick, Sept 13–15, 1989Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Fanning, T. and Raphael, B.: Computer tele-conferencing: experience at Hewlett-Packard. Proceedings of the Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work, Austin, Texas, 1986Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Feenberg, A.: The written world. In: Mindweave: communication, computers and distance education. (R.D. Mason, A.R. Kaye, eds.), pp. 22–39 Oxford: Pergamon 1989Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Forman, E.A, and Cazden, C.B.: Exploring Vygotskian perspectives in education: the cognitive value of peer interaction. In: Culture, communication, and cognition. (J.V. Wertsch, ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 1985Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Galegher, J. and Kraut, R.E.: Computer-mediated communication for intellectual teamwork: a field experiment in group writing. Mimeo. Arizona: University of Arizona 1989Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Galegher, J., Kraut, R.E., and Egido, C. (eds.): Intellectual teamwork: social and technological foundations of cooperative work. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum 1990Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Goodman, F.L.: Instructional gaming through computer conferencing. In: Empowering networks: computer conferencing in education. (M. Waggoner, ed.). Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Educational Technology Publications 1992Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gooler, D. D.: The education utility: the power to revitalize education and society. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Educational Technology Publications 1986Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Grenier, R. and Metes, G.: Enterprise networking: working together apart. Bedford MA.: Digital Press 1992Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hansen E. et al.: Computer conferencing for collaborative learning in large college classes: final report of a grant project. Division of Development and Special Projects. Indiana: Indiana University 1991Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Harasim, L. (ed.): Online education: perspectives on a new environment. New York: Praeger 1990Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Henri, F.: Distance education and computer-assisted communication. Prospects, 18, 1, pp. 85–90 Paris: Unesco 1988CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Hiltz, S.R.: Online communities: a case study of the office of the future. New Jersey: Ablex Publishing 1984Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hiltz, S.R.: Evaluating the virtual classroom. In: Online education: perspectives on a new environment. (L. Harasim, ed.), pp 133–184. New York: Praeger 1990Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hiltz, S.R.: Collaborative teaching in a virtual classroom. Proceedings of the Third Symposium on Computer-Mediated Communication, May 15–17, pp. 37–55. Guelph, Ontario: University of Guelph 1990Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hsu, E.: Running a management game in a computer-mediated conferencing system. Proceedings of the Third Symposium on Computer-Mediated Communication, May 15–17, pp. 201–208. Guelph, Ontario: University of Guelph 1990Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Illich, I. D.: Deschooling society. London: Calder and Boyars 1971Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Johnson-Lenz, P. and Johnson-Lenz T.: Post-mechanistic groupware primitives: rhythms, boundaries, and containers. Int. J. Man-Machine Studies. 34, pp. 395–417 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kaye, A. R.: Computer-mediated communication and distance education. In: Mindweave: communication, computers and distance education. (R.D. Mason, A.R. Kaye, eds.), pp. 3–21. Oxford: Pergamon 1989Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kaye, A.R.: Computer networking for development of distance education courses. In: Computer Supported Collaborative Writing (M. Sharpies, ed.) London: Springer Verlag (in press)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kling, R.: Multivalent social relationships in computer-supported workplaces. Mimeo, 1991Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Knowles, M.S.: The modern practice of adult education: from pedagogy to andragogy. New York: Association Press 1970Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Lamy, T.: La télématique: un outil convivial? In: Le savoir à domicile: pédagogie et problématique de la formation à distance (F. Henri, A. Kaye, eds.), pp. 303–328. Québec: Presses de l’Université du Québec 1985Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Marchand, M. et al.: Les paradis informationnels. Paris: Masson et CNET/ENST 1987Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Mason, R.D.: An evaluation of CoSy on an Open University course. In: Mindweave: communication, computers and distance education. (R.D. Mason, A.R. Kaye, eds.), pp. 115–145. Oxford: Pergamon 1989Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Mason, R.D.: Moderating educational computer conferences. In: DEOSNEWS 1 (1), Pennsylania State University 1991 (also to appear in Electronic Networking: Research, Applications, and Policy, 1992)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Nipper, S.: Developing acceptance: how can integrated systems be used for industry-oriented distance education and training? Workshop on Telematic Networks for Distance Education and Training — ‘Electronic Universities’. Brussels: Commission of the European Communities, October 3, 1990Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Odasz, F.: Grassroots networking on Big Sky Telegraph: empowering Montana’s one-room rural schools. In: Empowering networks: computer conferencing in education. (M. Waggoner, ed.). Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Educational Technology Publications 1992Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Owen, T.: Computer-mediated writing: the writer in electronic residence. In: Mindweave: communication, computers and distance education. (R.D. Mason, A.R. Kaye, eds.), pp. 208–210. Oxford: Pergamon 1989Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Palme, J.: Does software design matter? Written contribution to the Najaden ARW 1991Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Proctor, P.: M. ENB Computer-assisted learning project. Campus World 1989/90, pp 79–80 Cambridge: Hobson’s 1989Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Rapaport, M.: Computer mediated communications. New York: John Wiley 1991Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Riel, M.M. and Levin, J.A.: Building electronic communities: success and failures in computer networking. Instructional Science, 19, pp. 145–169 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Rogers, C.: Encounter groups. London: Allen Lane, The Penguin Press, 1970Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Rowan, R.: The intuitive manager. New York: Little 1986Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Schrage, M.: Shared minds: the new technologies of collaboration. New York: Random House 1990Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Senge, P.M.: The fifth discipline, the art and practice of the learning organisation. New York: Doubleday/Currency 1990Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Sinclair, J.M. and and Coulthard, R.M.: Towards an analysis of discourse: the English used by teachers and pupils. London: Oxford University Press 1975Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Slavin, R.E.: Co-operative learning: theory, research, and practice. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice Hall 1990Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Smith, K.L.: Collaborative and interactive writing for increasing communication skills. Hispania, 73, pp. 51–61 (1990)Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Sproull, L. and Kiesler, S.: Connections: new ways of working in the networked organization. Cambridge, MA.: MIT Press 1991Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Steiner, I.D.: Group process and productivity. New York: Academic Press 1972Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Thomas, R.: The implications of electronic communication for the Open University. In: Mindweave: communication, computers and distance education. (R.D. Mason, A.R. Kaye, eds.), pp. 166–177. Oxford: Pergamon 1989Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Vygotsky, L.S.: Thought and language. Cambridge, MA.: MIT Press 1962CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Vygotsky, L.S.: Mind in society. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press 1978Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Webb, N.M.: Student interaction and learning in small groups, Review of Educational Research, 52, 3, pp. 421–445 (1982)Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Yates, S.: Speech, writing, and computer conferencing: an analysis. In: Computer conferencing: the last word. (R.D. Mason, ed.). Victoria, B.C.: Beach Holme Publications (in press)Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Zuboff, S.: In the age of the smart machine. New York: Basic Books 1988Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anthony Kaye
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Educational TechnologyThe Open UniversityUK

Personalised recommendations