Ophthalmologists and neurologists frequently see patients who complain of transient neurologic phenomena, most of which are visual, that are associated with a headache. The differentiation of migraine episodes from seizures and the vaso-occlusive disorders is not always immediately obvious, but an awareness of the types of migraines, migrainous phenomena, and migraine complications will help in formulating the appropriate clinical diagnosis. Migraine cannot be understood without knowledge of the normal ocular and cerebral blood flow and the factors that alter these circulations. A single approach to treatment of every case is not possible, but drugs or other therapies that modify or reverse these changes can be used to outline a rational plan of therapy.


Cerebral Blood Flow Cluster Headache Basilar Artery Migraine Attack Posterior Cerebral Artery 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mark J. Kupersmith
    • 1
  1. 1.Director of Neuro-ophthalmology New York Eye and Ear InfirmaryNew York University Medical CenterNew YorkUSA

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