Molecular Mechanisms in Proenkephalin Gene Regulation
Proenkephalin (PENK) belongs to a family of three genes encoding peptides possessing opiate-like activity. Expression of the PENK gene is developmentally regulated in a tissue-specific manner. Widely expressed during embryogenesis in mitotic cells (Keshet et al. 1989), its expression is progressively restricted upon terminal differentiation. The biological significance of this temporal regulated expression is as yet unclear. Although in the nervous system enkephalins are established neurotransmitters, one may also speculate on paracrine effects and growth factor properties of these peptides during development. In the adult organism PENK is expressed in tissues of different embryological origin: testis, adrenal medulla, and throughout the peripheral and central nervous system. In the latter, PENK is expressed in neurons and astrocytes (Spruce et al. 1990; Shinoda et al. 1989; Melner et al. 1990).
KeywordsChromaffin Cell Phorbol Ester Adrenal Chromaffin Cell Bovine Chromaffin Cell Bovine Adrenal Chromaffin Cell
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- Affolter HU, Giraud P, Hotchkiss AJ, Eiden LE (1984) Stimulus-secretion-synthesis coupling: a model for cholinergic regulation of enkephalin secretion and gene transcription in adrenomedullary chromaffin cells. In: Fraioli F (ed) Opiate peptides in the periphery. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 23–30Google Scholar
- Brockelhurst KW, Moritz K, Pollard HB (1985) Characterisation of protein kinase C and its role in catecholamine secretion from bovine adrenal-medullary cells. Biochem J 228: 35–42Google Scholar
- Douglas WW, Kanno T, Sampson SR (1967) Influence of the ionic environment on the membrane potential of adrenal chromaffin cells and on the depolarizing effect of acetylcholine. J Physiol (Lond) 262: 743–753Google Scholar
- Farin CJ, Kley N, Hoellt V (1990) Transcriptional regulation of the proenkephalin gene, in chromaffin cells. J Biol Chem 19116–19121Google Scholar
- Giraud P, Rowalski C, Barthel F, Bequet D, Renard M, Grino M, Boudoure que F, Loeffler JP (1991) Striatal proenkephalin turn-over and gene transcription are regulated by c-AMP and protein kinase C related pathways. Neuroscience (in press)Google Scholar
- Kley N, Farin CJ, Loeffler JP (1990) Cellular signaling mechanisms regulating opioid peptide gene expression. In: Almeida OFX, Shippenberg T (eds) Neurobiology of opioids. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Kurosawa A, Guidotti A, Costa E (1976) Induction of tyrosine 3-monooxygenase elicited by charbamylcholine in intact and denervated adrenal medulla: role of protein kinase activation and translocation. Mol Pharmacol 15: 420–430Google Scholar