Conjugal Gene Transfer in the Soil Environment; New Approaches and Developments

  • E. Smit
  • J. D. Van Elsas


Gene transfer in the environment has been identified as a process which potentially enhances putative hazards of released genetically engineered microorganisms (GEMs). This contentment has spurred recent research in this area. Our understanding of how the environment affects genetic interactions between micro-organisms has therefore increased drastically in recent years. It is now evident that the gene transfer mechanisms classically known to take place in vitro in the laboratory, i.e. transformation, transduction and conjugation, can also occur in nature given conditions are conducive to these processes (e.g. Stewart and Sinigalliano 1990; Zeph et al. 1988; Van Elsas et al. 1988).


Pseudomonas Fluorescens Plasmid Transfer Filter Mating Chromosomal Insertion Marker Cassette 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. Smit
    • 1
  • J. D. Van Elsas
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute for Soil Fertility ResearchWageningen BranchWageningenThe Netherlands

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