Health Risk Assessment of Long Term Exposure to Chemicals: Application to Cadmium and Manganese
Experimental and epidemiologic studies constitute two complementary approaches to assess the risk resulting from long term exposure to chemicals. The main outcome of experimental studies is the characterization of the pattern of toxic effects induced by chemicals, the understanding of the relationship between their metabolic handling and interactions with target molecules and the identification of their critical effects and the most relevant markers to assess their biologically active internal doses. Extrapolation of dose-effect(s) relationships from animal to human is highly questionable, hence the practice to apply arbitrary safety (uncertainty) factors to the doses without observed adverse effects in animals.
KeywordsHealth Risk Assessment Respirable Dust Urinary Cadmium Hand Steadiness Exposure Central Nervous System
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