Surface Structure, Intonation, and “Focus”

  • Mark Steedman
Part of the ESPRIT Basic Research Series book series (ESPRIT BASIC)

Abstract

The paper briefly reviews a theory of intonational prosody and its relation to syntax, and to certain oppositions of discourse meaning that have variously been called “topic and comment”, “theme and rheme”, “given and new”, or “presupposition and focus.” The theory, which is based on Combinatory Categorial Grammar, is presented in full elsewhere. The present paper examines its implications for the semantics of “focus”.

Keywords

Functional Composition Categorial Grammar Pitch Accent Phrase Boundary Prosodic Phrase 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Altmann, G., and Steedman, M.: 1988, ‘Interaction with Context During Human Sentence Processing’, Cognition 30, 191–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Beckman, M. and Pierrehumbert, J.: 1986, ‘Intonational Structure in Japanese and English’, Phonology Yearbook 3, 255–310.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bird, S.: 1991, ‘The Intonational Phrase in Sign-based Grammar’, Workshop on Declarative Persectives on the Syntax-Prosody Interface, Utrecht, May 1991.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bolinger, D.: 1972, ‘Accent is Predictable (If You’re a Mind Reader)’, Language 48, 633–644.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Brown, G., and Yule, G.: 1983, Discourse Analysis, Cambridge, University Press.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chomsky, N.: 1970, ‘Deep Structure, Surface Structure, and Semantic Interpretation’, in D. Steinberg and L. Jakobovits, Semantics, CUP, Cambridge, 1971, 183–216.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cooper, W. and Paccia-Cooper, J.: 1980, Syntax and Speech, Harvard University Press, Cambridge MA.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Crain, S., and Steedman, M.: 1985, ‘On not being led up the garden path: the use of context by the psychological parser’, in Dowty, D., Kartunnen, L., and Zwicky, A. (eds.), Natural Language Parsing: Psychological, Computational and Theoretical Perspectives, ACL Studies in Natural Language Processing, Cambridge University Press, 320-358.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Curry, H. and Feys, R.: 1958, Combinatory Logic, North Holland, Amsterdam.MATHGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Cutler, A., and Isard, S.: 1980, ‘The Production of Prosody’, in Butterworth, B. (ed.), Language Production, Vol. 1, New York, Wiley, 246–269.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Dowty, D.: 1988, ‘Type raising, functional composition, and non-constituent coordination’, in Oehrle, R.T., Bach, E., and Wheeler, D. (eds.), Categorial Grammars and Natural Language Structures, Reidel, Dordrecht, 153–198.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Gussenhoven, C.: 1983, On the Grammar and Semantics of Sentence Accent, Dordrecht, Foris.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Halliday, M.: 1967, Intonation and Grammar in British English, Mouton, The Hague.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Jackendoff, R.: 1972, Semantic Interpretation in Generative Grammar, MIT Press, Cambridge MA.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Joshi, A., Lynn Webber, B., and Sag, I. (eds.): 1981, Elements of Discourse Understanding, Cambridge, University Press.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lyons, J.: 1977, Semantics, vol. II, Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Markel, J., and Gray, A.: 1976, Linear Prediction of Speech, Springer-Verlag, Berlin.MATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Pierrehumbert, J.: 1980, The Phonology and Phonetics of English Intonation, Ph.D dissertation, MIT. (Dist. by Indiana University Linguistics Club, Bloomington, IN.).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Pierrehumbert, J., and Beckman, M.: 1989, Japanese Tone Structure, MIT Press, Cambridge MA.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Pierrehumbert, J., and Hirschberg, J.: 1987, ‘The Meaning of Intonational Contours in the Interpretation of Discourse’, ms. Bell Labs.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Prince, E.: 1986, ‘On the syntactic marking of presupposed open propositions’. Papers from the Parasession on Pragmatics and Grammatical Theory at the 22nd Regional Meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society, 208-222.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Rooth, M.: 1985, Association with Focus, unpublished PhD dissertation, University of Massachusetts, Amherst.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Selkirk, E.: 1984, Phonology and Syntax, MIT Press, Cambridge MA.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Stechow, A. von: 1989, ‘Focussing and Backgrounding Operators’, Fachgruppe Sprachwissenschaft der Universität Konstanz, Arbeitspapier Nr. 6.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Steedman, M.: 1985, ‘Dependency and Coordination in the Grammar of Dutch and English’, Language 61, 523–568.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Steedman, M.: 1987, ‘Combinatory grammars and parasitic gaps’. Natural Language & Linguistic Theory 5, 403–439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Steedman, M.: 1990a, ‘Gapping as Constituent Coordination’, Linguistics and Philosophy 3, 207–263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Steedman, M.: 1990b,’ structure and Intonation in Spoken Language Understanding’, Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the ACL, Pittsburgh, June 1990, 9-17.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Steedman, M.: 1991a, ‘Parsing Spoken Language with Combinatory Grammars’, in Tomita, M. (ed.) Current Issues in Parsing Technology, Proceedings of the International Workshop on Parsing Technologies, Pittsburg, August 1989, Kluwer, Boston. 113–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Steedman, M.: 1991b, ‘Structure and Intonation’, Language 68, 260–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Vijay-Shankar, K. and Weir, D.: 1990, ‘Polynomial Time Parsing of Combinatory Categorial Grammars’, Proceedings of the 28th Annual Conference of the ACL, Pittsburgh, June 1990.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© ECSC - EEC - EAEC, Brussels - Luxembourg 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mark Steedman
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Computer and Information ScienceUniversity of PennsylvaniaUSA

Personalised recommendations