Behavioral Imaging: The Neuropsychological Assessment

  • R. C. Gur
  • A. J. Saykin
  • R. E. Gur
Conference paper


Neuropsychological assessment is becoming an integral part of the workup of neurological disorders affecting the central nervous system and is used increasingly in psychiatry as well. This presents some potential benefits but there is also a danger in its indiscriminate use and overinterpretation. Here we will describe our attempts to integrate measures derived from neuropsychological assessment with measures of regional brain function using neuroimaging.


Neuropsychological Assessment Wisconsin Card Sorting Test California Verbal Learning Test Expert Weighting Thematic Apperception Test 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Benton AL, Hamsher KdeS (1978) Multilingual aphasia examination. (Manual, revised). University of Iowa, Iowa CityGoogle Scholar
  2. Benton AL, Hamsher KdeS, Varney NR, Spreen O (1983) Contributions to neuropsychological assessment. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  3. Blonder LX, Gur RE, Gur RC, Saykin AJ, Hurtig HI (1989) Neuropsychological functioning in hemiparkinsonism. Brain Cogn 9:177–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Christensen A (1975) Luria’s neuropsychological investigation. Spectrum, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  5. Delis DC, Kramer JH, Kaplan EF, Ober BA (1983) California verbal learning test. Jovanovich, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  6. Goodglass H, Kaplan E (1983) The assessment of aphasia and related disorders, 2nd edn. Lea and Febiger, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  7. Gordon M (1988) The Gordon diagnostic system (Manual). Gordon, DewittGoogle Scholar
  8. Gur RC, Trivedi SS, Saykin AJ, Gur RE (1988a) “Behavioral imaging” - a procedure for analysis and display of neuropsychological test scores: I. Construction of algorithm and initial clinical application. Neuropsychiatr Neuropsychol Behav Neurol 1:53–60Google Scholar
  9. Gur RC, Saykin AJ, Blonder LX, Gur RE (1988b) “Behavioral imaging”: II. Application of the quantitative algorithm to hypothesis testing in a population of hemiparkinsonian patients. Neuropsychiatr Neuropsychol Behav Neurol 1:87–96Google Scholar
  10. Gur RC, Saykin AJ, Benton A, Kaplan E, Levin H, Kester DB, Gur RE (1990a) “Behavioral imaging”: III. Inter-rater agreement and reliability of weightings. Neuropsychiatr Neuropsychol Behav Neurol 3:113–124Google Scholar
  11. Gur RC, Saykin AJ, Muenz LR, Trivedi S, Gur RE (1990b) Response to Yeo et al.’s critique of behavioral imaging. Neuropsychiatr Neuropsychol Behav Neurol 3:304–312Google Scholar
  12. Gur RC, Erwin RJ, Gur RE (1992) Neurobehavioral probes for physiologic neuroimaging studies. Arch Gen PsychiatryGoogle Scholar
  13. Heaton RK (1981) Wisconsin card sorting test (Manual). Psychological Assessment Resources, OdessaGoogle Scholar
  14. Jones-Gotman M, Milner B (1977) Design fluency: the invention of nonsense drawings after focal cortical lesions. Neuropsychologia 15:305–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kaplan EF (1987) First name fluency task. Unpublished test.Google Scholar
  16. Kaplan EF, Goodglass H, Weintraub S (1978) The Boston naming test. Lea and Febiger, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  17. Kuhl DE, Reivich M, Alavi A et al. (1975) Local cerebral blood volume determined by three-dimensional reconstruction of radionuclide scan data. Circ Res 36: 610–619PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Levin H (1987) Auditory search task. Unpublished test.Google Scholar
  19. Nelson HE (1976) A modified card sorting test sensitive to frontal lobe deficits. Cortex 12:313–324PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Reitan R (1979) Manual for administration of neuropsychological test batteries for adults and children. Neuropsychological Laboratory, TucsonGoogle Scholar
  21. Russell EW (1975) A multiple scoring method for assessment of complex memory functions. J Consult Clin Psychol 43:800–809CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Saykin AJ (1982) Facial memory test. Unpublished test.Google Scholar
  23. Sheppard WF (1887) A correction for grouping. Proc Lond Math Soc 29:353–380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Trivedi SS, Gur RC (1987) Computer graphics for neuropsychological data. Proc Natl Comput Graph Assoc 3:22–32Google Scholar
  25. Trivedi SS, Gur RC (1989) Topographic mapping of cerebral blood flow and behavior. Comput Biol Med 19:219–229PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Wechsler D (1945) A standardized memory scale for clinical use. J Psychol 19:87–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Wechsler D (1981) Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised (Manual). Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  28. Yeo RA, Turkheimer E, Bigler ED (1990) Neuropsychological methods of localizing brain dysfunction: clinical versus empirical approaches. Neuropsychiatr Neuropsychol Behav Neurol 3:290–303Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. C. Gur
    • 1
  • A. J. Saykin
  • R. E. Gur
  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of PennsylvaniaUSA

Personalised recommendations