Advertisement

Regulation of DNA Replication in Escherichia coli

  • E. Boye
  • A. Lyngstadaas
  • A. Løbner-Olesen
  • K. Skarstad
  • S. Wold
Part of the Colloquium der Gesellschaft für Biologische Chemie book series (MOSBACH, volume 43)

Abstract

The circular chromosome of Escherichia coli is replicated bidirectionally from a unique origin oriC (Master and Broda 1971; Bird et al. 1972). The molecular actors and interactions required for initiation and propagation of a replication fork have to a large extent been characterized and described by biochemical experiments combined with evidence and methods from bacterial genetics and physiology (for reviews, see von Meyenburg and Hansen 1987; Baker and Kornberg 1991; Bremer and Churchward 1991). An oriC-containing plasmid (minichromosome) may be initiated and completely replicated in vitro by purified proteins (Kaguni and Kornberg 1984; Funnell et al. 1986), so that the minimal requirements for minichromosome replication have been defined. In contrast to our detailed knowledge of the biochemical steps of DNA replication, information about regulation of the process remains scant Regulation of DNA replication occurs largely at the level of initiation, but evidence for downstream control points have been presented (Atlung et al. 1987; Skarstad et al. 1989; Løbner-Olesen et al. 1989). This work gives an overview of the factors known or suggested to affect the regulation of DNA replication in E. coli.

Keywords

Replication Fork Stringent Response Amino Acid Starvation Chromosome Replication DnaA Protein 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Allman R, Schjerven T & Boye E (1991) Cell cycle parameters of Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacterid 173:7970–7974Google Scholar
  2. Asai T, Takanami M & Imai M (1990) The AT richness and gid transcription determine the left border of the replication origin of die E. coli chromosome. EMBO J 9:4065–4072Google Scholar
  3. Asai T, Chen C-P, Nagata T, Takanami M & Imai M (1992) Transcription in vivo within the replication origin of the Escherichia coli chromosome: a mechanism for activating initiation of replication. Mol Gen Genet 231:169–178PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Atlung T, Clausen ES & Hansen FG (1985) Autoregulation of the dnaA gene of Escherichia coli K-12. Mol Ren Genet 200:442–450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Atlung T, L0bner-Olesen A & Hansen FG (1987) Overproduction of DnaA protein stimulates initiation of chromosome and minichromosome replication in Escherichia coli. Mol Gen Genet 106:51–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baker TA & Komberg A (1988) Transcriptional activation of initiation of replication from the E. coli chromosomal origin: an RNA-DNA hybrid near oriC. Cell 55:113–123Google Scholar
  7. Bakker A & Smith DW (1989) Methylation of GATC sites is required for precise timing between rounds of DNA replication in Escherichia coli. J Bacterid 171:5738–5742Google Scholar
  8. Bird R, Louam J, MartusceUi J & Caro L (1972) Origin and sequence of chromosome replication in Escherichia coli. J Mol Biol 70:549–566PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Boye E, Lobner-Olesen A & Skarstad K (1988) Timing of chromosomal replication in Escherichia coli. Biochim. Biophys Acta 951:359–364PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Boye E & L0bner-Olesen A (1990) The role of dam methyltransferase in the control of DNA replication in E. coli. Cell 62:981–989Google Scholar
  11. Boye E & L0bner-Olesen A (1991) Bacterial growth studied by flow cytometry. Res Microbiol 142:131–135PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Boye E (1991) A turnstile for initiation of DNA replication. Trends Cell Biol 1:107–109PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Braun RE, O’Day K & Wright A (1985) Autoregulation of the DNA replication gene dnaA in E. coli K-12. Cell 40:159–169Google Scholar
  14. Bremer H & Churchward G (1991) Cyclic chromosome replication in E. coli. Microbiol Rev 55:459–475Google Scholar
  15. Campbell JL & Kleckner N (1990) E. coli oriC and the dnaA promoter are sequestered from dam methyltransferase following the passage of the replication fork. Cell 62:967–979PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cashel M & Rudd KE (1987) The stringent response. In: Neidhardt FC, Ingraham JL, Low KB, Magasanik B, Schaechter M & Umbarger HE (eds) Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium. Cellular and molecular biology. American Society for Microbiology, Wash-ington, DC, pp 1410–1438Google Scholar
  17. Churchward G, Estiva E & Bremer H (1981) Growth rate-dependent control of chromosome replication initiation in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol 145:1232–1238PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Cooper S & Helmstetter CE (1968) Chromosome replication and the division cycle of Escherichia coli B/r. J Mol Biol 31:519–540PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Donachie WD (1968) Relationship between cell size and time of initiation of DNA replication. Nature 219:1077–1079PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Filutowicz M & Roll J (1990) The requirement of IHF protein for extrachromosomal replication of the Escherichia coli oriC in mutant deficient in DNA polymerase I activity. New Biol 2:818–827PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Filutowicz M, Ross W, Wild J & Course RL (1992) Involvement of Fis protein in replication of the Escherichia coli chromosome. J Bacteriol 174:398–407PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Funnell BE, Baker TA & Komberg A (1986) Complete enzymatic replication of plasmids containing the origin of the Escherichia coli chromosome. J Biol Chem 261:5616–5624PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Gille H, Egan JB, Roth A & Messer W (1991) The Fis protein binds and bends the origin of chromosomal DNA replication, oriC, of Escherichia coli. Nucl Acids Res 19:4167–4172PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hansen FG, Christensen BB & Atlung T (1991) The initiator titration model: computer simulation of chromosome and minichromosome control. Res Microbiol 142:161–167PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Jensen MR, L0bner-Olesen A & Rasmussen K (1990) Escherichia coli minichromosomes: absence of copy number control and random segregation. J Mol Biol 215:257–265PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kaguni JM & Kornberg A (1984) Replication initiated at the origin (oriC) of the E. coli chromosome reconstituted with purified enzymes. Cell 38:183–190PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kohara Y, Tohdoh N, Jiang X & Okazaki T (1985) The distribution and properties of RNA primed initiation sites of DNA synthesis at the replication origin of Escherichia coli chromosome. Nucl Acids Res 13:6847–6866PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Koppes UH & von Meyenburg K (1987) Nonrandom minichromosome replication in Escherichia coli K-12. J Bacteriol 169:430–433PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Kornberg A (1988) DNA replication. J Biol Chem 263:1–4PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Kornberg A & Baker TA (1991) DNA replication. WH Freeman & Co, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  31. Kubitschek HE & Newman CN (1978) Chromosome replication during the division cycle in slowly growing, steady-state cultures of three Escherichia coli B/r strains. J Bacteriol 136:179–190PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Leonhard AC & Helmstetter CE (1986) Cell cycle-specific replication of Escherichia coliminichromosomes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 83:5101–5105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Levine A, Vannier F, Dehbi M, Henckes G & Seror SJ (1991) The stringent response blocks DNA replication outside the ori region in Bacillus subtilis and at the origin in Escherichia coli. J Mol Biol 219:605–613PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lycett GW, Orr E & Pritchard RH (1980) Chloramphenicol releases a block in initiation of chromosome replication in a dnaA strain of Escherichia coli K-12. Mol Gen Genet 178:329–336PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. L0bner-Olesen A, Skarstad K, Hansen FG, von Meyenburg K & Boye E (1989) The DnaA protein determines the initiation mass of Escherichia coli K-12. Cell 57:881–889PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Maal0e O & Hanawalt PC (1961) Thymine deficiency and the normal DNA replication cycle. J Mol Biol 3:144–155PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Mahaffey JM & Zyskind JW (1989) A model for the initiation of replication in Escherichia coli. JTheorBiol 140:453–477Google Scholar
  38. Masters M Sc Broda P (1971) Evidence for the bidirectional replication of the Escherichia coli chromosome. Nature New Biol 232:137–140PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Ogawa T & Okazaki T (1991) Concurrent transcription from the gid and mioC promoters activate replication of an Escherichia coli minichromosome. Mol Gen Genet 230:193–200PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Ogden GB, Pratt MJ & Schaechter M (1988) The replicative origin of the E. coli chromosome binds to cell membranes only when hemimethylated. Cell 54:127–135PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Pierucci O, Helmstetter CE, Rickert M, Weinberger M & Leonard AC (1987) Overexpression of the dnaA gene in Escherichia coli B/r: chromosome and minichromosome replication in the presence of rifampin. J Bacteriol 169:1871–1877PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Polaczek P (1990) Bending of the origin of replication of Escherichia coli by binding of IHF at a specific site. New Biol 2:265–271PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Rokeach LA & Zyskind JW (1986) RNA terminating within of E. coli origin of replication: stringent regulation and control by DnaA protein. Cell 46:763–771Google Scholar
  44. Schaechter M, Maaloe O & Kjeldgaard NO (1958) Dependency on medium and temperature of cell size and chemical composition during balanced growth of Salmonella typhimurium. J Gen Microbiol 19:592–606PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Skarstad K, Steen HB & Boye E (1983) Cell cycle parameters of slowly growing Escherichia coli B/r studied by flow cytometry. J Bacteriol 154:656–662PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Skarstad K, Steen HB & Boye E (1985) Escherichia coli DNA distributions measured by flow cytometry and compared with theoretical computer simulations. J Bacteriol 163:661–668PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Skarstad K, Boye E & Steen HB (1986) Timing of initiation of chromosome replication in individual Escherichia coli cells. EMBO J 5:1711–1717PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Skarstad K, von Meyenburg K, Hansen FG & Boye E (1988) Coordination of chromosome replication initiation in Escherichia coli: effects of different dnaA alleles. J Bacteriol 170:2549–2554PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Skarstad K, Lobner-Olesen A, Atlung T, von Meyenburg KSc Boye E (1989) Initiation of DNA replication in Escherichia coli after overproduction of the DnaA protein. Mol Gen Genet 218:50–56PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Skarstad K, Baker TA & Romberg A (1990) Strand separation required for initiation of replication at the chromosomal origin of E. coli is facilitated by a distant RNA-DNA hybrid. EMBO J 9:2341–2348Google Scholar
  51. Tippe-Schindler R, Zahn G & Messer W (1979) Control of the initiation of DNA replication in Escherichia coli. I. Negative control of initiation. Mol Gen Genet 168:185–195Google Scholar
  52. von Meyenburg K & Hansen FG (1987) Regulation of chromosome replication. In: Neidhardt FC, Ingraham JL, Low KB, Magasanik B, Schaechter M & Umbarger HE (eds) Escherichia coU and Salmonella typhimurium. Cellular and molecular biology. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, DC, pp 1555–1577Google Scholar
  53. Weinberger M & Helmstetter CE (1989) Inhibition of protein synthesis transiently stimulates initiation of minichromosome replication in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol 171:3591–3596PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Xu YC & Bremer H (1988) Chromosome replication in Escherichia coli induced by oversupply of DnaA. Mol Gen Genet 211:138–142.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. Boye
    • 1
  • A. Lyngstadaas
    • 1
  • A. Løbner-Olesen
    • 2
  • K. Skarstad
    • 1
  • S. Wold
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of BiophysicsInstitute for Cancer ResearchMontebelloNorway
  2. 2.Department of Molecular, Cellular, and Developmental BiologyUniversity of ColoradoBoulderUSA

Personalised recommendations