On the Decline of Fir (Abies densa Griff.) in Bhutan
The East Himalayan fir, Abies densa Griff, [synonym: A. Webbiana sensu F.B.I, pp; A. spectabilis auct.pp. non (D. Don Mirbel)] occurs in Bhutan between about 3000 and 4000 m, is intermixed in the lower parts with spruce (Picea spinulosa [Griff.] Henry), some larch (Larix griffithiana Carriere) in the higher ranges and in the understory with juniper (Juniperus recurva D.Don.), but also forms single-tree species stands over large areas. The understory vegetation is dominated by dense and old Rhododendron spp. (more than 40 species are known). The Rhododendron jungle is of great importance for the natural regeneration of fir, because it serves as protection against browsing by cattle, yak and game.
KeywordsBark Beetle Annual Ring Heterobasidion Annosum Needle Loss Pinus Wallichiana
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