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Observation and Analysis of Global Rainfall

  • E. Ruprecht
Conference paper
Part of the NATO ASI Series book series (volume 5)

Abstract

Precipitation is a most important meteorological parameter for the whole biosphere including human life. The consequences of sufficient or inadequate rainfall are obvious comparing tropical rain forest and desert areas. The latter also can change drastically after a short rain event, vegetation grows immediately, that means the potential for a vegetation cover exists, but cannot be used due to lack of water. Over the oceans, precipitation is the source of freshwater, and therefore the main component of the forcing of the thermohaline circulation. For the atmospheric circulation precipitation stands for the amount of net energy (latent heat) which is liberated during condensation and partly consumed by the evaporation of droplets. This latent heat is for many processes in particular in the tropics the main energy source. The global mean rainfall is about 1 m per year, this corresponds to about 80 Wm -2 of latent heat. Comparing with the mean incoming solar radiation of about 240 (\(W{{m}^{{ - 2}}} = \frac{{{{S}_{0}}}}{4}\left( {1 - {{\alpha }_{p}}} \right)\), when α p is the planetary albedo) its relative importance for the energy cycle is evident. Since precipitation is very much concentrated in time and space, the energy surplus in certain regions and certain time periods can be larger more than two magnitudes of the incoming solar energy. That is the reason why the hydrological and the energy cycle are to be jointly investigated during GEWEX. Precipitation has a high spatial and temporal variability. This is due to its process of formation which depends on the following atmospheric properties:
  • sufficient water vapour, which can condensate;

  • rising moist air, that cools the water vapour below saturation point;

  • condensation nuclei, to initiate droplet formation.

Keywords

Brightness Temperature Outgoing Longwave Radiation Global Precipitation Climatology Project Microwave Radiometer Rain Intensity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. Ruprecht
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut für Meereskunde an der Universität KielKielGermany

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