Modification of the In Vitro Replication of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus HIV-1 by TPSg, a Polysaccharide Fraction Isolated from the Cupressaceae Thuja occidentalis L. (Arborvitae)

  • S. H. Gohla
  • R. A. Zeman
  • M. Bögel
  • E. Jurkiewicz
  • S. Schrum
  • H. D. Haubeck
  • H. Schmitz
  • G. Hunsmann
  • R. D. Neth
Conference paper
Part of the Haematology and Blood Transfusion / Hämatologie und Bluttransfusion book series (HAEMATOLOGY, volume 35)


The acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is caused by an infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) [2–8]. CD4-positive lymphocytes were shown to be one major target in HIV-1 infections [9–10]. Apart of CD4+ cell depletion, the functional impairment of the T-cell system also plays an important role in the progress of this disease [11, 12, 13].


Human Immunodeficiency Virus Reverse Transcriptase Activity Alternanthera Philoxeroides Viral Antigen Expression Plant Pathogenic Virus 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Gohla SH, Haubeck HD, Neth RD (1988) Mitogenic activity of high molecular polysaccharide fractions isolated from the cup-ressaceae Thuja occidental L. I. Macro-phage-dependent induction of CD-4 positive T-helper (Th+) lymphocytes. Leukemia 8:528Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Sarin PS, Gallo RC (1986) The involvement of human T lymphotropic retroviruses in T cell leukemia and immune deficiency. Cancer Ref 1:1Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Wong-Staal F, Gallo RC (1985) The family of human T-lymphotropic leukemia viruses: HTLV-1 as the cause of adult T-cell leukemia and HTLV-III as the cause of aquired immune deficiency syndrome. Blood 65:253PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Popovic M, Sarngadharan MG, Read E et al (1984) Detection, isolation and continuous production of cytopathic retroviruses from patients with AIDS and pre AIDS. Science 224:497PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gallo RC, Salahuddin SZ, Popovic M et al (1984) Frequent detection and isolation of cytopathic retroviruses (HTLV-III) from patients with AIDS and risk for AIDS. Science 224:500PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Schüpbach J, Popovic M, Gilden RV et al (1984) Serological analysis of a subgroup of human T-lymphotropic retroviruses (HTLV-III) associated with AIDS. Science 224:503PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Sarngadharan MG, Popovic M, Gilden RV et al (1984) Anitbodies reactive with human T-lymphotropic retroviruses (HTLV-III) in serum of patients with AIDS. Science 224:506PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Barré-Sinoussi F, Chermann JC, Rey F et al (1983) Isolation of a T-lymphotropic retrovirus from a patient at risk for AIDS. Science 220:868PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Klatzman D, Barré-Sinoussi F, Nugere MT et al (1984) Selective tropism of lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV) for helper/inducer lymphocytes. Science 225:59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Arndt R, Keeser D (1989) Impairment of the immunological system in HIV infection. Z Hautkr 64:353PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Klatzman D, Gluckmann JC et al (1986) HIV infections: facts and hypotheses. Immunol today 7:291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Fahey IL, Khaitow D, Klatzmann D et al (1987) Immunology of HIV infection and AIDS: memorandum from a WHO/HUIS Meeting. Bull WHO 65:453Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Pinching AJ (1986) The immunology of AIDS and HIV infection. Clin Immunol Allergy 6:645Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Murray HW, Hillmann JK, Rubin BG et al (1985) Patients at risk for AIDS-related opportunistic infections: Clinical manifestations and impaired gamma interferon production. N Engl J Med 313:1504PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Mitsuya H, Weinhold KJ, Furman PA et al (1985) 3′-Azido-3′-deoxythymidine (BW A509U): an antiviral agent that inhibits the infectivity and cytopathic effect of human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus in vitro. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 82:7096PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    McCormick JB, Getchell JP, Mitchell SW et al (1984) Ribavirin suppresses replication of lymphadenopathy-associated virus in cultures of human adult T-lymphocytes. Lancet 2:1367PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    De Clercq E (1985) A potent inhibitor of reverse transcriptase of RNA tumor viruses. Cancer Lett 8:9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Mitsuya H, Popovic M, Yarchoan R et al (1984) Suramin protection of T-cells in vitro against cytopathic effect of HTLV-III. Science 226:172PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Sarin PS, Taguchi Y, Sun D et al (1984) Inhibition of HTLV-III/LAV replication by foscarnet. Biochem Pharmacol 34:4075CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Rozenbaum W, Dormont D, Spire B et al (1985) Antimoniotungstate (HPA 23) treatment of three patients with AIDS and one with prodrome (letter). Lancet 1:450PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Sen GC, Herz R, Davatelis V et al (1984) Antiviral and protein inducing activities of recombinant human leukocyte interferons and their hybrids. J Virol 50:445PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Ho DD, Hartshorn KL, Rota TR et al (1985) Recombinant human interferon-alpha-A suppresses HTLV-III replication in vitro. Lancet 1:602PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Sarin PS, Gallo RC, Scheer DI et al (1985) Effect of a novel compound (AL 721) on HTLV-III infectivity in vitro. N Engl J Med 313:1289PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Chandra P, Sarin PS (1986) Selective inhibition of replication of the AIDS-associated virus HTLV-III/LAV by synthetic D-penicillamine. Arzneimittelfor-schung/Drug Res 36:184Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Shaffner CP, Plescia OJ, Pontani D (1986) Antiviral activity of Amphotericin B methyl ester. Inhibition of HTLV-III replication in cell culture. Biochem Pharmacol 35:4110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Zamecnik PC, Goodchild J, Taguchi Y (1986) Inhibition of the replication and expression of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III in cultured cells by exogenous synthetic oligonucleotides complementary to viral RNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 83:4143PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Sarin PS, Sun D, Thornton A, Müller WEG (1987) Inhibition of replication of the etiologic agent of aquired immune deficiency syndrome (human T-lym-photropic retrovirus/lymphadenopathy-associated virus) by Avarol and Avarone. JNCI 78:663PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Harada S, Koyanagi Y, Yamamoto N et al (1985) Infection of HTLV-III/LAV in HTLV-I-carrying cells MT-2 and MT-4 and application in a plaque assay. Science 229:563PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Schmitz H, Grass F (1986) Specific enzyme immunoassay for the detection of antibody to HTLV-III using rheumatoid factor coated plates. J Immunol Meth 88:115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Weir DM (ed) (1978) Handbook of experimental immunology. Blackwell, Oxford (pp 15.18–15.21, 34.23–34.25, 34–36)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kaerber G (1931) Beitrag zur kollektiven Behandlung pharmakologischer Reihenversuche. Arch Exp Pathol Pharmakol 162:480CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Gohla SH, Haubeck HD, Schrum S, Soltau H, Neth RD (1990) Immunmodulation am Beispiel der Cupressaceae Thuja occidentalis L. In: Albrecht H, Franz G (eds) Naturheilverfahren: Zum Stand der Forschung. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, p 60Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Gohla SH, Zeman RA, Gartner S, Popovic M, Jurkiewics E, Haubeck HD, Schrum S, Gallo RC, Neth RD, Hunsmann G (1990) Inhibition of the replication of HIV-1 by TPSg, a polysaccharide-fraction isolated from the cupressaceae Thuja occidentalis L. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 6:131Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Beuscher N, Kopanski L (1986) Purification and biological characterization of antiviral substances from Thuja occidentalis. Planta Med (Suppl):75Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Khurana P (1971) Effect of homeopathic drugs on plant viruses. Planta Med 20:142PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Baba M, Pauwels R, Balzarini J, Arnout J, Desmyter J, De Clercq E (1988) Mechanism of inhibitory effect of dextrane-sul-fate and heparin on replication of human immunodeficiency virus in vitro. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 85:6132PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Gohla SH, Haubeck HD, Soltau H, Schrum S, Neth RD (1989) Induction of CD4+ and Okt17+ T-cells by high molecular polysaccharide-fractions isolated from Thuja occidentalis L. In: Neth RD, Gallo RC, Greaves MF, Gaedicke G, Gohla SH, Mannweiler K, Ritter J (eds) Modern trends in human leukemia, vol 8. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, p 268Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Hans R (1970) Die Zusammensetzung nichtcellulosischer Polysaccharide in verschiedenen Altersstufen des Holzes von Thuja occidentalis und Abies dablemensis. Holzforschung 24:60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Harada S, Purtilo DT, Kojanagi Y, Sonnabend J, Yamamoto N (1986) Sensitive assay for neutralizing antibodies against AIDS-related viruses (HTLV-III/LAV). J Immunol Meth 92:177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Hoffmann AD, Banapour B, Levy JA (1985) Characterization of the AIDS-associated retrovirus reverse transcriptase and optimal conditions for its detection in virions. Virology 147:326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Wendler I, Jentsch KD, Schneider J, Hunsmann G (1987) Efficient replication of HTLV-II and STLV-IIImac in human Jurkat cells. Med Microbiol Immunol 176:273PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Jurkiewics E, Panse P, Jentsch KD, Hartmann H, Hunsmann G (1989) In vitro anti-HIV-1 activity of chondroitin poly-sulfate. AIDS 3:423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Tabba HD, Chang RS, Smith KM (1989) Isolation, purification, and partial characterization of prunellin, an anti-HIV component of aqueous extracts of Prunella vulgaris. Antiviral Res 11:263PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Zhang SM, He YS, Tabba HD, Smith KM (1989) Inhibitor against the human immunodeficiency virus in aqueous extracts of Alternanthera philoxeroides. Chin Med J 101:861Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Ngan F, Chang Rs, Tabba HD, Smith KM (1988) Isolation, purification and partial characterization of an active anti-HIV compound from the Chinese medicinal herb Viola yedoensis. Antiviral Res 10:107PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Chang RS, Young HW (1988) Inhibition of growth of human immunodeficiency virus in vitro by crude extracts of Chinese medicinal herbs. Antiviral Res 9:163PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Miyoshi I, Kubonishi I, Yoshimoto S, Akagi T, Ohtsuki Y, Shiraishi Y, Nagata K, Hinuma Y (1981) Detection of type c viral particles in a cord T-cell line derived by cocultivation of normal human leukocytes and human leukemic T cells. Nature 294:770PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Gohla SH (1988) In vivo- und in vitro Untersuchungen zur Immunmodulation des spezifischen und unspezifischen Immunsystems durch hochmolekulare Poly-saccharidfraktionen der Cupressaceae Thuja occidentalis L. PhD thesis, University of HamburgGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Lai PK, Donovan J, Takayama H, Sakagami H, Tanaka A, Konno K, Nonoyama M (1990) Modification of human immunodeficiency viral replication by pine cone extracts. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 6:205PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    WHO (1989) In vitro screening of traditional medicines for anti-HIV activity: Memorandum from WHO meeting. Bull WHO 67:613Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Hatano T, Yasuhara T, Fukuda T, Noro T, Okuda T (1989) Phenolic constituents of licorice. II. Structures of lipopyranocu-marin, licoarylcoumarin and glisoflavone, and inhibitory effects of licorice phenolics on xanthine oxidase. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 37:3005Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1992

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. H. Gohla
    • 1
  • R. A. Zeman
    • 5
  • M. Bögel
    • 2
  • E. Jurkiewicz
    • 3
  • S. Schrum
    • 1
  • H. D. Haubeck
    • 4
  • H. Schmitz
    • 2
  • G. Hunsmann
    • 3
  • R. D. Neth
    • 1
  1. 1.2nd Medical Clinic, Department of Clinical ChemistryUKEHamburg 20Germany
  2. 2.Department of VirologyBernhard-Nocht InstituteHamburg 4Germany
  3. 3.DPZ, German Primate Center, Department of Virology and ImmunologyGöttingenGermany
  4. 4.Department of Clinical Chemistry and PathobiochemistryTechnical University of AachenAachenGermany
  5. 5.Laboratory of Tumor Cell BiologyNational Cancer Institute (NCI), National Institutes of Health and Human Services (NIH)BethesdaUSA

Personalised recommendations