Radical Related Cell Injury

  • H. Redl
  • H. Gasser
  • S. Hallström
  • G. Schlag


Polytrauma is commonly associated with hemorrhagic-traumatic shock causing hypoperfusion of vital organs. Reperfusion of these organs occurs following resuscitation. Hypoperfusion/reperfusion events together with phagocyte activation caused by products of humoral cascade systems (e.g., complement) represent the nonbacterial inflammatory events leading to organ failure.


Lipid Peroxidation Xanthine Oxidase Hemorrhagic Shock Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome Gastric Mucosal Lesion 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Arvidsson S, Fält K, Marklund S, Haglund U (1985) Role of free oxygen radicals in the development of gastrointestinal mucosal damage in Escherichia coli sepsis. Circ Shock 16:383–393.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Baggiolini M, Wymann MP (1990) Turning on the respiratory burst. TIBS 15:69–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Baldwin SR, Simon RH, Grum CM, Ketai LH, Boxer LA, Devall LH (1986) Oxidant activity in expired breath of patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome. Lancet 1:11–13.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Barbior BM (1988) Microbicidal oxidant production by phagocytes. In: Cerutti PA, Fridovich I, McCord JM (eds) Oxy-radicals in molecular biology and pathology. Liss, New York, pp 39–51.Google Scholar
  5. Barroso-Aranda J, Schmid-Schönbein GW (1989) Transformation of neutrophils as indicator of irreversibility in hemorrhagic shock. Am J Physiol 257:H846–H852.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bellavite P, Dri P, Delia Bianca V, Serra MC (1983) The measurement of superoxide anion production by granulocyte in whole blood. A clinical test for the evaluation of phagocyte function and serum opsonic capacity. Eur J Clin Invest 13:363–368.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Benedetti A, Fulceri R, Ferrali M, Ciccoli L, Esterbauer H, Comporti M (1982) Detection of carbonyl functions in phospholipids of liver microsomes in CC14-and BrCCl3-poisoned rats. Biochim Biophys Acta 712:628–638.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Bengtson A, Lannsjo W, Heideman M (1987) Complement and anaphylatoxin responses to cross clamping of the aorta studies during general anesthesia with or without extradural blockade. Br J Anaesth 59:1093–1097.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bernard GR, Lucht WD, Niedermeyer ME, Snapper JR, Ogletree ML, Brigham KL (1984) Effect of N-acetylcysteine on the pulmonary response to endotoxin in the awake sheep and upon in vitro granulocyte function. J Clin Invest 73:1772–1784.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Bernard GR, Swindell BB, Meredith MJ, Carroll FE, Higgins SB (1989) Glutathione repletion by N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in patients with the adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Am Rev Respir Dis 139:A221.Google Scholar
  11. Boogaerts MA, van de Broeck J, Deckmyn H, Roelant C, Vermylen J, Verwilghen RL (1984) Protective effect of vitamin E on immune triggered, granulocyte mediated endothelial injury. Thromb Haemost 51:89–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Bond RF, Haines GA, Johnson G III (1988) The effect of allopurinol and catalase on cardiovascular hemodynamics during hemorrhagic shock. Circ Shock 25:139–151.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Bosson S, Fält K, Haglund U (1988) Effects of a calcium antagonist (nifedipine) on cats in live E. coli bacteremic shock. Res Exp Med 188:357–365.Google Scholar
  14. Brackett DJ, Lerner MR, Archer LT, Wilson MF (1990) Assessment of iron chelation by desferrioxamine on responses to endotoxemia. Circ Shock 31:35.Google Scholar
  15. Broner CW, Shenep JL, Stidham GL, Stokes DC, Fairclough D, Schonbaum GR, Rehg JE, Hildner WK (1989) Effect of antioxidants in experimental Escherichia coli septicemia. Circ Shock 29:77–92.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Burghuber OC, Strife RJ, Zirrolli J, Henson PM, Henson JE, Mathias MM, Reeves JT, Murphy RC, Voelkel NF (1985) Leukotriene inhibitors attenuate rat lung injury induced by hydrogen peroxide. Am Rev Respir Dis 131:778–785.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Carden DL, Smith K, Korthuis RJ (1991) Oxidantmediated, CD18-dependent microvascular dysfunction induced by complement-activated granulocytes. Am J Physiol 260:H1144–H1152.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Cederna J, Bandlien K, Toledo-Pereyra C, Bergren C, MacKenzie G, Guttierez-Vega R (1990) Effect of allopurinol and/or catalase on hemorrhagic shock and their potential application to multiple organ harvesting. Transplant Proc 22:444–445.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Chaudhri G, Clark IA (1989) Reactive oxygen species facilitate the in vitro and in vivo lipopolysaccharide-induced release of tumor necrosis factor. J Immunol 143:1290–1294.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Clark IA, Chaudhri G, Cowden WB (1988) Interplay of reactive oxygen species and tumor necrosis factor in tissue injury. In: Cerutti PA, Fridovich I, McCord JM (eds) Oxy-radicals in molecular biology and pathology. Liss, New York, pp 53–60.Google Scholar
  21. Cochrane CG, Spragg R, Revak SD (1983) Pathogenesis of the adult respiratory distress syndrome. Evidence of oxidant activity in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. J Clin Invest 71:754–761.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Corbucci GG, Gasparetto A, Candiani A, Crimi G, Antonelli M, Bufi M, DeBlasi RA, Cooper MB, Gohil K (1985) Shock-induced damage to mitochondrial function and some cellular antioxidant mechanisms in humans. Circ Shock 15:15–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Cotterill LA, Gower JD, Fuller BJ, Green CJ (1989) Oxidative damage to kidney membranes during cold ischemia. Evidence of a role for calcium. Transplantation 48:745–751.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Crowell JW, Nelson KM Jr (1975) Mechanism of bloody diarrhea in shock. Circ Shock 2:21–28.Google Scholar
  25. Curzio M (1988) Interaction between neutrophils and 4 hydroxyalkenals and consequences on neutrophil motility. Free Radic Res Commun 5:55–66.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Dauberschmidt R, Mrochen R, Grieß B, Kaden K, Dressler C, Grajetzki H, Meyer M (1989) Changes of ceruloplasmin activity in patients with multiple organ failure. In: Schlag G, Redl H (eds) Second Vienna shock forum. Prog Clin Biol Med 308:331–338.Google Scholar
  27. Deitch EA, Bridges W, Baker J, Ma JW, Ma L, Grisham MB, Granger N, Specian RD, Berg R (1988) Hemorrhagic shock induced bacterial translocation is reduced by xanthine oxidase inhibition or inactivation. Surgery 104:191–198.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Demling RH, LaLonde C, Jin LJ, Ryan P, Fox R (1986) Endotoxemia causes increased lung tissue lipid peroxidation in unaesthetized sheep. J Appl Physiol 60:2094–2100.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Demling RH, LaLonde C, Fogt F, Zhu D, Liu Y (1989) Effect of increasing oxygen delivery post burn on oxygen consumption and oxidant induced lipid peroxidation in the adult sheep. Crit Care Med 17:1025–1030.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Dwenger A, Beychok C, Schweitzer G, Pape HC (1990) Pattern and functions of chemiluminescence and enzyme secretion of alveolar macrophages and granulocytes in the posttraumatic course. Fresenius J Anal Chem 337:86–87.Google Scholar
  31. Esterbauer H, Cheeseman KH, Dianzani MU, Poli G, Slater TF (1982) Separation and characterization of the aldehydic products of lipid peroxidation stimulated by ADP-Fe2+ in rat liver microsomes. Biochem J 208:129–140.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Esterbauer H, Lang J, Zadravec S, Slater TF (1984) Detection of malonaldehyde by high performance liquid chromatography. Methods Enzymol 105:319–328.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Esterbauer H, Koller E, Slee RG, Koster JF (1986) Possible involvement of the lipid peroxidation product 4-hydroxynonenal in the formation of fluorescent chromolipids. Biochem J 239:405–409.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Fantone JC, Ward PA (1983) Role of oxygen derived free radicals and metabolites in leukocyte-dependent inflammatory reactions. Am J Pathol 107:397–418.Google Scholar
  35. Fehr J, Moser R, Leppert D, Groscurth P (1985) Antiadhesive properties of biological surfaces are protective against stimulated granulocytes. J Clin Invest 76:535–542.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Fleckenstein AE, Smith SL, Linseman KL, Beuving LJ, Hall ED (1991) Comparison of the efficacy of mechanistically different antioxidants in the rat hemorrhagic shock model. Circ Shock 35:223–230.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Forslid J, Bjrksten B, Hagersten K, Hed J (1989) Erythrocyte mediated scavenging of reactive oxygen metabolites generated by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes during phagocytosis: comparison between normal and Down’s syndrome blood cells. Inflammation 13:543–551.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Frei B, Stocker R, Ames BN (1988) Antioxidant defences and lipid peroxidation in human blood plasma. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 85:9748–9752.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Friedl HP, Till GO, Trentz O, Ward PA (1989) Roles of histamine complement and xanthine oxidase in thermal injury of skin. Am J Pathol 135:203–217.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Friedl HP, Smith DJ, Till GO, Thomson PD, Louis DS, Ward PA (1990) Ischemia reperfusion in humans. Appearance of xanthine oxidase activity. Am J Pathol 136:491–495.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Gamble JR, Harlan JM, Klebanoff SJ, Vadas MA (1985) Stimulation of the adherence of neutrophils to umbilical vein endothelium by human recombinant tumor necrosis factor. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 82:8667–8671.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Gasser H, Paul E, Redl H, Schlag G, Traber D, Herndon D (1991) Loss of plasma antioxidants after burn injury (abstract). Circ Shock 34:13.Google Scholar
  43. Ghezzi P, Saccardo B, Bianchi M (1986) Role of reactive oxygen intermediates in the hepatotoxicity of endotoxin. Immunopharmacology 12:241–244.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Gilliard N, Heldt G, Merritt TA, Pappert D, Spragg RG (1990) Functional consequences of porcine lung surfactant oxidation. Am Rev Respir Dis 141:A635.Google Scholar
  45. Grisham MB, Hernandez LA, Granger DN (1986) Xanthine oxidase and neutrophils infiltration in intestinal ischemia. Am J Physiol 251:G567–G574.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Groeneveld ABJ, den Hollander W, Straub J, Nauta JJP, Thijs LG (1990) Effects of N-acetylcysteine and terbutaline treatment on hemodynamics and regional albumin extravasation in porcine septic shock. Circ Shock 30:185–205.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Grum CM, Ragsdale RA, Ketai LH, Simon RH (1987) Plasma xanthine oxidase activity in patients with adult respiratory syndrome. J Crit Care 2:22–26.Google Scholar
  48. Guice KS, Oldham KT, Johnson KJ, Kunkel RG, Morganroth ML, Ward PA (1988) Pancreatitis induced acute lung injury. An ARDS model. Ann Surg 208:71–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Gurtner GH, Traystman RJ, Toung TJK (1988) Letters to the editor. J Appl Physiol 64:1757–1761.Google Scholar
  50. Hall ED, Pazara KE, Braughler JM (1988a) α1 Aminosteroid lipid peroxidation inhibitor UF4006F protects against cerebral ischemia in gerbils. Stroke 19:997–1002.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Hall ED, Yonkers PA, McCall JM (1988b) Attenuation of hemorrhagic shock by the non-glucocorticoid α1 aminosteroid UF74006F. Eur J Pharmacol 147:299–303.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Hallaway PE, Eaton JW, Panter SS, Hedlund BE (1989) Modulation of deferoxamine toxicity and clearance by covalent attachment to biocompatible polymers. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 86:10108–10112.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Halliwell B, Gutteridge JMC (1986) Oxygen free radicals and iron is related to biology and medicine: some problems and concepts. Arch Biochem Biophys 246:501–514.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Heideman M, Hugli TE (1984) Anaphylatoxin generation in multi-system organ failure. J Trauma 24:1038–1043.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Hess ML, Warner MF, Smith JM, Manson NH, Greenfield LJ (1983) Improved myocardial hemodynamic and cellular function with calcium channel blockade (verapamil) during canine hemorrhagic shock. Circ Shock 10:119–130.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Hinshaw DB, Sklar LA, Bohk B, Schraufstätter IU, Hyslop PA, Rossi MW, Spragg RG, Cochrane CG (1986) Cytoskeletal and morphological impact of cellular oxidant injury. Am J Pathol 123:454–464.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Hinshaw DB, Armstrong BC, Burger JM, Beals TF, Hyslop PA (1988) ATP and microfilaments in cellular oxidant injury. Am J Pathol 132:479–488.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Hoover RL, Robinson JM, Karnovsky MJ (1987) Adhesion of polymorphonuclear leukocytes to endothelium enhances the efficiency of detoxification of oxygen free radicals. Am J Pathol 126:258–268.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Horgan MJ, Lum H, Malik AB (1989) Pulmonary edema after polytrauma, artery occlusion and reperfusion. Am Rev Respir Dis 140:1421–1428.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Inthorn D, Szczeponik T, Mühlbayer D, Jochum M, Redl H (1987) Studies of granulocyte function (chemilumi-nescence response) in postoperative infection. Prog Clin Biol Res 236-B:51–58.Google Scholar
  61. Jacobs D, Julsrud J, Hedlund B, Hallaway P, Bubrick M (1990) Iron chelation with a deferoxamine (DFO) conjugate in hemorrhagic shock. Circ Shock 31:37.Google Scholar
  62. Jacobson JM, Michael JR, Harfi MH Jr, Gurtner GH (1990) Antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes protect against pulmonary oxygen toxicity in the rabbit. J Appl Physiol 68:1252–1259.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Jin LJ, LaLonde D, Demling RH (1986) Lung dysfunction after thermal injury in relation to prostanoid and oxygen radical release. J Appl Physiol 61:103–112.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Johnson A, Malik AB (1980) Effect of granulocytopenia on extravascular lung water content after microembolization. Am Rev Respir Dis 122:561–566.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Johnson KJ, Ward PA, Kunkel RG, Wilson BS (1986) Mediation of IgA induced lung injury in the rat. Role of macrophages and reactive oxygen products. Lab Invest 54:499–506.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Kappus H (1985) Lipid peroxidation: mechanisms, analysis, enzymology and biological relevance. In: Sies H (ed) Oxidative stress. Academic, London, pp 273–310.Google Scholar
  67. Kasama T, Kobayashi K, Fukushima T, Tabata M, Ohno I, Negishi M, Ide H, Takahashi T, Niwa Y (1989) Production of interleukin-1 like factor from human peripheral blood monocytes and polymorphonuclear leukocytes by superoxide anion: the role of interleukin 1 and reactive oxygen species in inflamed sites. Clin Immunol Immunopathol 53:439–448.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Kessler M, Höper J, Krumme BA (1976) Monitoring of tissue perfusion and cellular function. Anesthesiology 45:184–197.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Konz KH, Tiegs G, Wendel A (1987) Protection by ebselen against endotoxin shock in rats or mice sensitized by galactosamine. Prog Clin Biol Res 236-A:281–288.Google Scholar
  70. Krieger BP, Loomis WH, Czer GT, Spragg RG (1985) Mechanisms of interaction between oxygen and granulocytes in hyperoxic lung injury. J Appl Physiol 58:1326–1330.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Kukreja RC, Kontos HA, Hess ML, Ellis EF (1986) PGH synthase and lipoxygenase generate superoxide in the presence of NADH or NADPH. Circ Res 59:612–619.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Kunimoto F, Morita T, Ogawa R, Fujita T (1987) Inhibition of lipid peroxidation improves survival rate of endotoxemic rats. Circ Shock 21:15–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Kvietys PR, Granger DN (1989) Hypoxia: its role in ischemic injury to the intestinal mucosa. In: Marston A, Bulkley GB, Fiddian-Green RC, Haglund UH (eds) Splanchnic ischemia and multiple organ failure. Arnold, London, pp 127–134.Google Scholar
  74. Lafuze JE, Weisman SJ, Apert LA, Baehner RL (1984) Vitamin E attenuates the effect of FMLP on rabbit circulating granulocytes. Pediatr Res 18:536–540.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Lee ES, Greenburg AG, Muffuid P, Melcher ED, Velkey TS (1987) Superoxide radicals and hemorrhagic shock: are intravascular radicals associated with mortality? J Surg Res 42:1–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Lewis MS, Whatley RE, Cain P, McIntyre TM, Prescott SM, Zimmerman GA (1988) Hydrogen peroxide stimulates the synthesis of platelet activating factor by endothelium and induces endothelial cell dependent neutrophil adhesion. J Clin Invest 82:2045–2055.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Lieners C, Redl H, Molnar H, Fürst W, Hallström S, Schlag G (1989) Lipid peroxidation in a canine model of hypovolemic-traumatic shock. Prog Clin Biol Med 308:345–350.Google Scholar
  78. Malik AB (1986) Neutrophil-dependent and independent increases in endothelial permeability. In: Novelli GP, Ursini F (eds) Oxygen free radicals in shock. International workshop, Florence 1985. Karger, Basel, pp 83–86.Google Scholar
  79. Martin WJ (1984) Neutrophil kill pulmonary endothelial cells by a hydrogen peroxide dependent pathway. An in vitro model of neutrophil mediated lung injury. Am Rev Respir Dis 130:209–213.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Marzi I, Rehkopf A, Hower R, Bühren V, Trentz O (1990) Superoxide dismutase reduces leukocyte adherence in hepatic sinusoids following hemorrhagic shock in the rat. Circ Shock 31:38.Google Scholar
  81. Maunder RJ, Winn RK, Gleisner JM, Hildebrandt J, Harland JM (1988) Effect of intravenous catalase on the pulmonary vascular response to endotoxemia in goats. J Appl Physiol 64:697–704.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. McCord JM (1985) Oxygen derived free radicals in postischemic tissue injury. N Engl J Med 312:159–163.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. McKechnie K, Furman BL, Parratt JR (1986) Modification by oxygen free radical scavengers of the metabolic and cardiovascular effects of endotoxin infusion in conscious rats. Circ Shock 19:429–439.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Morganroth ML, Till GO, Kunkel RG, Ward PA (1986) Complement and neutrophil mediated injury of perfused rat lungs. Lab Invest 54:507–514.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Nerlich ML, Scidel J, Regel G, Nerlich AG, Sturm JA (1986) Klinisch-experimentelle Untersuchungen zum oxidativen Membranschaden nach schwerem Trauma. Langenbecks Arch Chir [Suppl] 368:217–222.Google Scholar
  86. Neuhof H (1990) Role of proteinases in the pathophysiology of organ failure. In: Schlag G, Redl H, Siegel JH (eds) Shock, sepsis and organ failure. 1st Wiggers Bernard Conference. Springer, Heidelberg Berlin New York, pp 404–420.Google Scholar
  87. Nishigaki J, Hagihara M, Hiramatsu M, Izawa Y, Yagi K (1980) Effect of thermal injury on lipid peroxide levels of rat. Biochem Med 24:185–189.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Noack E, Murphy M (1991) Vasodilation and oxygen radical scavenging by nitric oxide/EDRF and organic nitrovasodilators. In: Sies H (ed) Oxidative stress — oxidants and antioxidants. Academic, London, pp 445–489.Google Scholar
  89. Novotny MJ, Laughlin MH, Adams HR (1988) Evidence of lack of importance of oxygen free radicals in Escherichia coli endotoxemia in dogs. Am J Physiol 254:H954–H962.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Olson NC, Grizzle MK, Anderson DL (1987) Effect of polyethylene glycol-superoxide dismutase and catalase on endotoxemia in pigs. J Appl Physiol 63:1526–1532.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Parker RE, Hardin JR, Brigham KL (1988) Verapamil attenuates lung vascular responses to endotoxin in sheep. J Appl Physiol 65:2138–2143.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Pauksens K, Sjlin J, Venge P (1989) Chemiluminescence of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and whole blood during acute bacterial infection. Scand J Infect Dis 21:277–284.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Peavy DL, Fairchild EJ II (1986) Evidence for lipid peroxidation in endotoxin poisoned mice. Infect Immun 52:613–616.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Perlman MB, Johnson A, Jubiz W, Malik AB (1989) Lipoxygenase products induce neutrophil activation and increase endothelial permeability after thrombin induced pulmonary microembolism. Circ Res 64:62–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Peters JH, Ginsberg MH, Bohl BP, Sklar LA, Cochrane CG (1986) Intravascular release of intact cellular fibronectin during oxidant induced injury of the in vitro perfused rabbit lung. J Clin Invest 78:1596–1603.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Peters JH, Ginsberg MH, Case CM, Cochrane CG (1988) Release of soluble fibronectin containing an extra type III domain (ED1) during acute pulmonary injury mediated by oxidants or leukocytes in vivo. Am Respir Dis 138:167–174.Google Scholar
  97. Petrone WF, English DK, Wong K, McCord JM (1980) Free radicals and inflammation: superoxide dependent activation of a neutrophil chemotactic factor in plasma. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 77:1159–1163.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Pison U, Obertacke U, Brand M, Seeger W, Joka T, Bruch J, Schmit-Neuerburg KP (1990) Altered pulmonary surfactant in uncomplicated and septicemia complicated courses of acute respiratory failure. J Trauma 30:19–26.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Ratych RE, Chuknyiska RS, Bulkley GB (1987) The primary localization of free radical generation after anoxia reoxygenation in isolated endothelial cells. Surgery 102:122–131.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Redl H, Lamche H, Schlag G (1983) Red cell count dependence of white blood granulocyte luminescence. Klin Wochenschr 61:163–164.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Redl H, Schlag G, Hammerschmidt DE (1984) Quantitative assessment of leukostasis in experimental hypovolemic-traumatic shock. Acta Chir Scand 150:113–117.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Redl H, Schlag G, Schießer A, Bahrami S, Junger W, Spragg RG (1986) Oxidant-induced alterations in lung adenine nucleotide precede edema formation. In: Novelli GP, Ursini F (eds) Oxygen free radicals in shock. International workshop, Florence 1985. Karger, Basel, pp 180–184.Google Scholar
  103. Redl H, Hallström S, Lieners C, Fürst W, Schlag G (1988) Proteolysis and lipid peroxidation — two aspects of cell injury in experimental hypovolemictraumatic shock. In: Hörl WH, Heidland A (eds) Proteases II — potential role in health and disease. Plenum, New York, pp 449–455.Google Scholar
  104. Redl H, Lieners C, Bahrami S, Schlag G, van Bebber IPT, Goris RJA (1990a) SOD in rat models and organ failure. In: Emerit I, Packer L, Auclair C (eds) Antioxidants in therapy and preventive medicine. Plenum, New York, pp 17–27.Google Scholar
  105. Redl H, Schlag G, Gasser H, Dinges HP, Radmore K, Davies J (1990b) hrSOD does not prevent bacterial translocation (BT) in a baboon polytrauma model. Free Radic Biol Med 9[Suppl 1]:156.Google Scholar
  106. Redl H, Gasser H, Hallström S, Paul E, Bahrami S, Schlag G, Spragg R (1991) Involvement of oxygen radicals in shock and organ failure. In: Sies H (ed) Oxidant stress — oxidants and antioxidants. Academic, London, pp 595–616.Google Scholar
  107. Regel G, Dwenger A, Scidel J, Nerlich ML, Sturm JA, Tscherne H (1987a) Die Bedeutung der neutrophilen Granulozyten bei der Entstehung des posttraumatischen Lungenversagens. Unfallchirurg 90:99–106.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Regel G, Nerlich ML, Dwenger A, Scidl J, Schmidt C, Sturm JA (1987b) Phagocytic function of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and the RES in endotoxemia. J Surg Res 42:74–84.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. Richard C, Lemonnier F, Thibault M, Couturier M, Auzepy P (1990) Vitamin E deficiency and lipoperoxidation during adult respiratory distress syndrome. Crit Care Med 18:4–9.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. Sacks T, Moldow CF, Craddock PR, Bowers TK, Jacob HS (1978) Oxygen radicals mediate endothelial cell damage by complement stimulated granulocytes: an in vitro model of immune vascular damage. J Clin Invest 61:1161–1167.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. Saez JC, Ward PH, Günther B, Vivaldi E (1984) Superoxide radical involvement in the pathogenesis of burn shock. Circ Shock 12:229–239.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. Sanan S, Sharma G, Malhotra R, Sanan DP, Jain P, Vadhera P (1989) Protection by desferrioxamine against histopathological changes of the liver in the post oligaemic phase of clinical haemorrhagic shock in dogs: correlation with improved survival rate and recovery. Free Radic Res Commun 6:29–38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Saugstad OD, Ostrem T (1977) Hypoxanthine and urate levels of plasma during and after hemorrhagic hypotension in dogs. Eur Surg Res 9:48–56.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. Schlag G, Redl H (1985) Morphology of the microvascular system in shock: lung, liver and skeletal muscles. Crit Care Med 13:1045–1049.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. Schlag G, Redl H, Dinges HP, Davies J, Radmore K (1991) Bacterial translocation in a baboon model of hypovolemic-traumatic shock. In: Schlag G, Redl H, Siegel JH, Traber DL (eds) Shock, sepsis, and organ failure, second Wiggers Bernard conference. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 53–83.Google Scholar
  116. Schmeling DJ, Drongowski RA, Coran AG (1988) Protective effect of ibuprofen in a lethal septic shock model and relationship to oxidant injury. Circ Shock 24:293.Google Scholar
  117. Schmid-Schönbein GW (1987) Capillary plugging by granulocytes and the no reflow phenomenon in the microcirculation. Fed Proc 46:2397–2401.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. Schneider J, Friderichs E, Heintze K, Flohe L (1990) Effects of recombinant human superoxide dismutase on increased lung vascular permeability and respiratory disorders in endotoxemic rats. Circ Shock 30:97–106.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. Schraufstätter IU, Hinshaw DB, Hyslop PA, Spragg RG, Cochrane CG (1986) Oxidant injury of cells — DNA strand breaks activate polyadenosine diphosphate ribose polymerase and lead to depletion of nicotinamine adenine dinucleotide. J Clin Invest 77:1312–1320.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. Schraufstätter IU, Hyslop PA, Jackson JH, Cochrane CG (1988) Oxidant induced DNA damage of target cells. J Clin Invest 82:1040–1050.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. Schraufstätter IU, Browne K, Harris A, Hyslop PA, Jackson JA, Quehenberger O, Cochrane CG (1990) Mechanisms of hypochlorite injury of target cells. J Clin Invest 85:554–562.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. Seeger W, Lepper H, Wolf HRD, Neuhof H (1985) Alterations of alveolar surfactant function after exposure to oxidative stress and to oxygenated and native arachidonic acid in vitro. Biochim Biophys Acta 835:58–67.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. Seekamp A, LaLonde C, Zhu D, Demling R (1988) Catalase prevents prostanoid release and lung lipid peroxidation after endotoxemia in sheep. J Appl Physiol 65:1210–1216.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Sharaf El, Din M, Dussing G, Egger G, Hofer HP, Schaur RJ, Schauenstein E (1989) Detection of 4-hydroxynonenal, a mediator of traumatic inflammation, in a patient with surgical trauma and in the sephadex inflammation model. Prog Clin Biol Med 308:351–356.Google Scholar
  125. Shasby DM, Shasby SS, Peach MJ (1983) Granulocytes and phorbol myristate acetate increase permeability to albumin of cultured endothelial monolayers and isolated perfused lungs — role of oxygen radicals and granulocyte adherence. Am Rev Respir Dis 127:72–76.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. Sies H (1985) Oxidative stress: introductory remarks. In: Sies H (ed) Oxidative stress. Academic, London, pp 1–8.Google Scholar
  127. Smedly LA, Tonnesen MG, Sandhaus RA, Haslett C, Guthrie LA, Johnston RB, Henson PM, Worthen GS (1986) Neutrophil mediated injury to endothelial cells — enhancement by endotoxin and essential role of neutrophil elastase. J Clin Invest 77:1233–1243.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Spragg RG, Richman P, Gilliard N, Merritt TA (1988) The future for surfactant therapy of the adult respiratory distress syndrome. In: Lachmann B (ed) Surfactant replacement therapy in neonatal and adult respiratory distress syndrome. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 203–211.Google Scholar
  129. Stahl GL, Fletcher MP, Amsterddam EA, Longhurst JC (1991) Role of granulocytes and C5a in myocardial response to zymosan-activated serum. Am J Physiol 261:H29–H37.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Stocker R, Frei B (1991) Endogenous antioxidant defences in human blood plasma. In: Sies H (ed) Oxidative stress: oxidants and antioxidants. Academic, London, pp 213–243.Google Scholar
  131. Suzuki M, Inauen W, Kvietys PR, Grisham MB, Meininger C, Schelling ME, Granger HJ, Granger DN (1989) Superoxide mediates perfusion induced leukocyte endothelial cell interactions. Am J Physiol 257:H1740–H1745.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. Swann JD, Jones TW, Maki A, Brown PC, Smith MW, Phelps PC, Berezesky IK, Trump BF (1990) Sublethal oxidative injury cases deregulation of cytosolic free calcium without depression of intracellular soluble thiols or elevation of cellular malondialdehyde content. Circ Shock 31:41.Google Scholar
  133. Sznajder JI, Fraiman A, Hall JB, Sanders W, Schmidt G, Crawford G, Nahum A, Wood LDH (1989) Increased hydrogen peroxide in the expired breath of patients with acute hypoxemic respiratory failure. Chest 96:606–612.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. Ta MT (1990) Decrease of antioxidants capacity and formation of lipid peroxidation products in human plasma after oxidation. Thesis, University of Vienna.Google Scholar
  135. Takeda K, Shimada Y, Amano M, Sakai T, Okada T, Yoshiya I (1984) Plasma lipid peroxides and alpha tocopherol in critically ill patients. Crit Care Med 12:957–959.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Till GO, Beauchamp C, Menapace D, Tourtellotte W Jr, Kunkel R, Johnson KJ, Ward PA (1983) Oxygen radical dependent lung damage following thermal injury of rat skin. J Trauma 23:269–277.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. Till GO, Hatherill JR, Ward PA (1985) Lipid peroxidation and acute lung injury following systemic complement activation. Circ Shock 16:65–66.Google Scholar
  138. Traber DL, Adams T, Sziebvert L, Stein M, Traber L (1985) Potentiation of lung vascular response to endotoxin by superoxide dismutase. J Appl Physiol 58:1005–1009.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Traber DL, Schlag G, Redl H, Strohmaier W, Traber LD (1987) Pulmonary microvascular changes during hyperdynamic sepsis in an ovine model. Circ Shock 22:185–193.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. Van Bebber IPT, Boekholz WKF, Goris RJA, Schillings PHM, Dinges HP, Bahrami S, Redl H, Schlag G (1989) Neutrophil function and lipid peroxidation in a rat model of multiple organ failure. J Surg Res 47:471–475.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  141. Van Bebber IPT, Lieners CFJ, Joldewijn EL, Redl H, Goris RJA (1992) Superoxide dismutase and catalase in an experimental model of multiple organ failure. J Surg Res 52:265–270.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. Varani J, Ginsburg I, Schuger L, Gibbs DF, Bromberg J, Johnson KJ, Ryan US, Ward PA (1989) Endothelial cell killing by neutrophils. Synergistic interaction of oxygen products and proteases. Am J Pathol 135:435–438.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. Vedder NB, Winn RK, Rice CL, Chi EY, Arfors KE, Harlan JM (1988) A monoclonal antibody to the adherence promoting leukocyte glycoprotein, CD18, reduces organ injury and improves survival from hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation in rabbits. J Clin Invest 81:939–944.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. Von Ritter C, Hinder RA, Oosthuizen MMJ, Svensson LG, Hunter SJS, Lambrecht H (1988) Gastric mucosal lesions induced by hemorrhagic shock in baboons. Role of oxygen-derived free radicals. Dig Dis Sci 33:857–864.Google Scholar
  145. Wachtfogel YT, Kucich U, James HJ, Scott CF, Schapira M, Zimmerman M, Cohen AB, Colman RW (1983) Human plasma kallikrein releases neutrophil elastase during blood coagulation. J Clin Invest 72:1672–1677.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. Wallis WJ, Hickstein DD, Schwartz BR, June CH, Ochs HD, Beatty P, Klebanoff SJ, Harlan JM (1986) Monoclonal antibody defined functional epitopes on the adhesion promoting glycoprotein complex (CDw18) of human neutrophils. Blood 67:1007–1013.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. Ward PA, Till GO, Kunkel R, Beauchamp C (1983) Evidence for role of hydroxyl radical in complement and neutrophil dependent tissue injury. J Clin Invest 72:789–801.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. Ward PA, Till GO, Hatherill JR, Annesley TM, Kunkel R (1985) Systemic complement activation lung injury, and products of lipid peroxidation. J Clin Invest 76:517–527.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Warren JS, Kunkel SL, Johnson KJ, Ward PA (1987) In vitro activation of rat neutrophils and alveolar macrophages with IgA and IgG immune complexes: implications for immune complex-induced lung injury. Am J Pathol 129:587–588.Google Scholar
  150. Wayner DD, Burton GW, Ingold KU, Barclay LR, Locke SJ (1987) The relative contributions of vitamin E, urate, ascorbate and proteins to the total peroxyl radical-tapping antioxidant activity of human blood plasma. Biochim Biophys Acta 924:408–419.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. Weiss SJ, Regiani S (1984) Neutrophils degrade subendothelial matrices in the presence of alpha-1 proteinase inhibitor. Cooperative use of lysosomal proteinases and oxygen metabolites. J Clin Invest 73:1297–1303.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Weiss SJ, Slivka A (1982) Monocyte and granulocyte mediated tumor cell destruction — a role for the hydrogen peroxide-myeloperoxidase-chloride system. J Clin Invest 69:255–262.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. Weiss SJ, Young J, LoBuglio AF, Slivka A, Nimeh NF (1981) Role of hydrogen peroxide in neutrophil mediated destruction of cultured endothelial cells. J Clin Invest 68:714–721.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Wendel A, Tiegs G, Werner C (1987) Evidence for the involvement of a reperfusion injury in galactosamine/ endotoxin-induced hepatitis in mice. Biochem Pharmacol 36:2637–2639.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Wendel A, Niehörster M, Tiegs G (1991) Interactions between reactive oxygen and mediators of sepsis and shock. In: Sies H (ed) Oxidative stress: oxidants and antioxidants. Academic, London, pp 585–593.Google Scholar
  156. Westaby S, Fleming J, Royston D (1986) Acute lung injury during cardiopulmonary bypass, the role of neutrophil sequestration and lipid peroxidation. Trans Am Soc Artif Intern Org 31:604–609.Google Scholar
  157. Wolf HRD, Lasch HG (1984) Antioxidative Therapie des akuten respiratorischen Distress Syndroms. Intensivmedizin 21:149–153.Google Scholar
  158. Wong C, Flynn J, Demling RH (1984) Role of oxygen radicals in endotoxin-induced lung injury. Arch Surg 119:77–82.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. Yokota J, Chiao JJC, Shires GT (1992) Oxygen free radicals affect cardiac and skeletal cell membrane potential during hemorrhagic shock in rats. Am J Physiol 262:H84–H90.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. Yokoyama Y, Parks DA (1988) Circulating xanthine oxidase: release of xanthine oxidase from isolated rat liver. Gastroenterology 94:607.Google Scholar
  161. Yokoyama Y, Beckman JS, Beckman TK, Wheat JK, Cash TG, Freeman BA, Parks DA (1990) Circulating xanthine oxidase: potential mediator of ischemic injury. Am J Physiol 258:G564–G570.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. Yoshikawa T, Murakami M, Yoshida N, Seta O, Kondo M (1983) Effects of superoxide dismutase and catalase on disseminated intravascular coagulation in rats. Thromb Haemost 50:869–872.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. Younes M, Schönberg MH, Jung H, Fredholm BB, Haglund U, Schildberg W (1984) Oxidative tissue damage following regional intestinal ischemia and reperfusion in the cat. Res Exp Med 184:259–264.Google Scholar
  164. Zimmerli W, Huber I, Bouma BN, Lämmle B (1989) Purified human plasma kallikrein does not stimulate but primes neutrophils for superoxide production. Thromb Haemost 62:1121–1125.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. Zimmerman GA, Renzetti AD, Hill HR (1983) Functional and metabolic activity of granulocytes from patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome — evidence for activated neutrophils in the pulmonary circulation. Am Rev Respir Dis 127:290–300.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. Zimmerman GA, McIntyre TM, Mehra M, Prescott SM (1990) Endothelial cell associated platelet activating factor: a novel mechanism for signalling intercellular adhesion. J Cell Biol 110:529–549.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. Zollner H, Schaur RJ, Esterbauer H (1991) Biological activities of 4-hydroxyalkenals. In: Sies H (ed) Oxidative stress: oxidants and antioxidants. Academic, London, pp 319–336.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. Redl
    • 1
  • H. Gasser
    • 1
  • S. Hallström
    • 1
  • G. Schlag
    • 1
  1. 1.Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Experimental and Clinical TraumatologyViennaAustria

Personalised recommendations