Advertisement

Chirality pp 59-85 | Cite as

Helicity of Molecules Different Definitions and Application to Circular Dichroism

  • G. Snatzke

Abstract

Any object which is not superposable onto its mirror image was called “chiral” at the end of last century by Lord Kelvin [1], who derived the term from the Greek word χειϱ for hand. In particular, molecules are called chiral if they have this mentioned property, and it has been well known since the middle of last century [2] that in the non-ordered state (gases, liquids, amorphous solids) optical activity can be measured only if the molecules are chiral. Chirality is thus a molecular property, whereas optical activity is a bulk property of a substance, i.e. in all practical cases can be measured only for a large ensemble of molecules. It is thus wrong to speak of a “chiral substance”, as it is incorrect to speak of “optically active molecules”!

Keywords

Circular Dichroism Torsional Angle Absolute Configuration Full Turn Magnetic Transition Moment 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Lord Kelvin (1904) The Baltimore lectures on molecular dynamics and the wave theory of light, p 436. Clay & Sons LondonGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Pasteur L (1922) OEuvres T 1, p 327. Mason ParisGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Schulz GE Schirmer RH (1979) Principles of protein structure. Springer Berlin Heidelberg New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Saenger W (1984) Principles of Nucleic Acid Structure. Springer New York Berlin Heidelberg TokyoGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Martin RH (1982) Angew Chem 94: 614Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Prelog V Helmchen G (1982) Angew Chem 94: 614CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Snatzke F Snatzke G (1980) In: Kienitz H Bock R Fresenius W Huber W Tölg G (eds) Analytiker-Taschenbuch Bd 1, p 217. Springer Berlin Heidelberg New York. When a rule is described there then rather that reference will be cited than the original literatureGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    cf Nishio M Hirota M (1989) Tetrahedron 45: 7201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Klyne W Prelog V (1960) Experientia 16: 521CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    cf. Block BP Powell WH Fernelius WC (1990) Inorganic Chemical Nomenclature, ACS Professional Reference Book, p 148/9. ACS Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Moffitt W Moscowitz A (1959) J Chem Phys 30: 648CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Harada N Nakanishi K (1983) Circular Dichroic Spectroscopy — Exciton Coupling in Organic Stereochemistry. University Science Books Mill ValleyGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Snatzke G (1978) In: Mason SF Optical Activity and Chiral Discrimination, pp 25 if and 43 ff. D Reidel Publ Coy DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Snatzke G (1979) Angew Chem 91: 380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Snatzke G Eckhardt G (1970) Tetrahedron 26: 1143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Snatzke G Schaffner K (1968) Tetrahedron 51: 986Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Snatzke G (1969) Riechst., Aromen, Körperpfl. 19: 98Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Wiesler WT Berova N Ojika M Meyers HV Chang M Zhou P Lo L-C Niwa M Takeda R Nakanishi K (1990) Helv Chim Acta 73: 509CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Frelek J Perkowska A Snatzke G Tima M Wagner U Wolff HP (1983) Spectroscopy Interntl J 2: 274Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Gerards M Snatzke G (1990) Tetrahedron: Asymmetry 1: 221CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. Snatzke

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations