Pathogenetic Linkages between Gram Negative Septic Shock and the Cellular Initiation and Regulation of Coagulation

  • Thomas S. Edgington
Conference paper

Abstract

Gram negative sepsis elicits complex pathophysiologic responses which are often severe and include disseminated intravascular coagulation and disseminated intravascular microthrombosis (DIC) within the context of hypotension, leukopenia, and a set of profound tissue injury associated with general cytokine generation and frequent local accumulation and activation of leukocytes and all to common terminal occurrence of multiple organ failure and death. DIC is common, not always fully established in the clinical setting or fully analyzed, and can frequently progress to a shock state and frequent death (McKay, 1964; Hinshaw and Cox, 1972).

Keywords

Hydrolysis Codon Leukemia Cysteine Heparin 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Altieri DC, Morrissey JH, Edgington TS (1988) Adhesive receptor Mac-1 coordinates the activation of factor X on stimulated cells of monocytic and myeloid differentiation: An alternative initiation of the coagulation protease cascade. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 85: 7462–7466PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Andoh K, Kubota T, Takada M, Tanaka H, Kobayashi N, Maekawa T (1987) Tissue factor activity in leukemia cells. Cancer 59: 748–754PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bach R, Nemerson Y, Konigsberg W (1981) Purification and characterization of bovine tissue factor. J Biol Chem 256: 8324–8331PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bauer KA, Conway EM, Bach R, Konigsberg WH, Griffin JD, Demetri G (1989) Tissue factor gene expression in acute myeloblastic leukemia. Thromb Res 56: 425–430PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bevilacqua MP, Pober JS, Majeau GR, Fiers W, Cotran RS, Gimbrone MA (1986) Recombinant tumor necrosis factor induces procoagulant activity in cultured human vascular endothelium: Characterization and comparison with the actions of interleu-kin 1. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 83: 4533–4537PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bevilacqua MP, Pober JS, Majeau GR, Cotran RS, Gimbrone MA (1984) Interleukin 1 (IL-1) induces biosynthesis and cell surface expression of procoagulant activity in human vascular endothelial cells. J Exp Med 160: 618–623PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bom VJJ, Bertina RM (1990) The contributions of Ca2+, phospholipids and tissue-factor apoprotein to the activation of human blood-coagulation factor X by activated factor VII. Biochem J 265: 327–336PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Broze GJ Jr, Warren LA, Novotny WF, Higuchi DA, Girard JJ, Miletich JP (1988) The lipoprotein-associated coagulation inhibitor that inhibits the factor VII-tissue factor complex also inhibits factor Xa: Insight into its possible mechanisms of action. Blood 71: 335–343PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Broze GJ, Leykam JE, Schwartz BD, Miletich JP (1985) Purification of human brain tissue factor. J Biol Chem 260: 10917–10920PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Broze GJ (1982) Binding of human factor VII and VIIa to monocytes. J Clin Invest 70: 526–535PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Caput D, Beutler B, Hartog K, Thayer R, Brown-Shimer S, Cerami A (1986) Identification of a common nucleotide sequence in the 3′ untranslated region of mRNA molecules specifying inflammatory mediators. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 83: 1670–1674PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Carson SD, Henry WM, Shows TB (1985) Tissue factor gene localized to human chromosome 1 (1pter-->1p21). Science 229: 991–993PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Colvin RB, Mosesson MW, Dvorak HF (1979) Delayed-type hypersensitivity skin reactions in congenital afibrinogenemia lack fibrin deposition and induration. J Clin Invest 63: 1302–1306PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Colvin RB, Dvorak HF (1975) Role of the clotting system in cell-mediated hypersensitivity. II. Kinetics of fibrinogen/ fibrin accumulation and vascular permeability changes in tuberculin and cutaneous basophil hypersensitivity reactions. J Immunol 114: 377–387PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Colvin RB, Johnson RA, Mihm MC, Dvorak HF (1973) Role of the clotting system in cell-mediated hypersensitivity. I. Fibrin deposition in delayed skin reactions in man. J Exp Med 138: 686–698PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Comp PC, Jacocks RM, Ferrell G, Esmon CT (1982) Activation of protein C in vivo. J Clin Invest 70: 127–133PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Comp PC, Esmon CT (1981) Generation of fibrinolytic activity by infusion of activated protein C into dogs. J Clin Invest 68: 1221–1228PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dindzans VJ, MacPhee PJ, Fung LS, Leibowitz JL, Levy GA (1985) The immune response to mouse hepatitis virus: Expression of monocyte procoagulant activity and plasminogen activator during infection in vivo. J Immunol 135: 4189–4197PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Drake TA, Morrissey JH, Edgington TS (1989) Selective cellular expression of tissue factor in human tissues. Implications for disorders of hemostasis and thrombosis. Am J Pathol 134: 1087–1097PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Drake TA, Ruf W, Morrissey JH, Edgington TS (1989) Functional tissue factor is entirely cell surface expressed on lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human blood monocytes and a constitu-tively tissue factor-producing neoplastic cell line. J Cell Biol 109: 389–395PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Drake TA, Morrissey JH, Edgington TS (1989) Immunohistochemical detection of tissue factor in human atherosclerotic plagues. Circulation 80: 11–182Google Scholar
  22. Edgington TS, Taylor F Jr, Chang A, Ruf W, Morrissey JH, Blick K (1989) Arrest of cellular initiation of coagulation in vivo by a locus II factor VIIa competitive antitissue factor monoclonal antibody prevents lethal septic shock. Thromb Haemost 62: 347Google Scholar
  23. Edgington TS, Taylor F, Chang A, Ruf W, Morrissey JH, Blick K (1989) Arrest of cellular initiation of coagulation in vivo by a locus II factor VIIa competitive antitissue factor monoclonal antibody prevents lethal septic shock. Thromb Haemost 62: 347Google Scholar
  24. Edwards RL, Rickles FR, Bobrove AM (1979) Mononuclear cell tissue factor: Cell of origin and requirements for activation. Blood 54: 359–370PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Fan S-T, Edgington TS (1988) Clonal analysis of mechanisms of murine T helper cell collaboration with effector cells of macrophage lineage. J Immunol 141: 1819–1827PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Fan S-T, Glasebrook AL, Edgington TS (in press) Clonal analysis of CD4+ T helper cell subsets that induce the monocyte procoagulant response. Cell ImmunolGoogle Scholar
  27. Geczy CL, Meyer PA (1982) Leukocyte procoagulant activity in man: An in vitro correlate of delayed-type hypersensitivity. J Immunol 128: 331–336PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Geczy CL, Roberts IM, Meyer P, Bernard C (1984) Susceptibility and resistance to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and neuritis in the guinea pig correlate with the induction of procoagulant and anticoagulant activities. J Immunol 133: 3026–3036PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Girard TJ, Warren LA, Novotny WF, Likert KM, Brown SG, Miletich JP, Broze GJ Jr (1989) Functional significance of the Kunitz- type inhibitory domains of lipoprotein-associated coagulation inhibitor. Nature 338: 518–520PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gonmori H, Naekawa T, Kobayashi N, Tanaka H, Tsukada H, Takada M, Andou K (1983) Disseminated intravascular coagulation, University of Tokyo Press, Tokyo, p 23Google Scholar
  31. Gregory SA, Kornbluth RS, Helin H, Remold HG, Edgington TS (1986) Monocyte procoagulant inducing factor: A lymphokine involved in the T cell-instructed monocyte procoagulant response to antigen. J Immunol 137: 3231–3239PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Gregory SA, Morrissey JH, Edgington TS (1989) Regulation of tissue factor gene expression in the monocyte procoagulant response to endotoxin. Mol Cell Biol 9: 2752–2755PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Gregory SA, Kornbluth RS, Helin H, Remold HG, Edgington TS (1986) Monocyte procoagulant inducing factor: A lymphokine involved in the T cell-instructed monocyte procoagulant response to antigen. J Immunol 137: 3231–3239PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Gregory SA, Edgington TS (1985) Tissue factor induction in human monocytes: Two distinct mechanisms displayed by different alloantigen responsive T cell clones. J Clin Invest 76: 2440–2445PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Guha, A, Bach R, Konigsberg W, Nemerson Y (1986) Affinity purification of human tissue factor: Interaction of factor VII and tissue factor in detergent micelles. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 83: 299–302PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hagen FS, Gray CL, O’Hara P, Grant FJ, Saari GC, Woodbury RG, Hart CE, Insley M, Kisiel W, Kurachi K, Davie EW (1986) Characterization of a cDNA coding for human factor VII. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 83: 2412–2416PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Helin H, Edgington TS (1984) A distinct “slow” cellular pathway involving soluble mediators for the T cell instructed induction of monocyte tissue factor activity in an allogeneic immune response. J Immunol 132: 2457–2463PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Helin H, Edgington TS (1983) Allogenic induction of the human T cell instructed monocyte procoagulant response is rapid and is elicited by HLA-DR. J Exp Med 158: 962–975PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Helin H, Fox RI, Edgington TS (1983) The instructor cell for the human procoagulant monocyte response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide is a Leu-3a+ T cell by fluorescence-activated cell sorting, J Immunol 131: 749–752PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Hinshaw LB, Beller-Todd BK, Archer LT, Benjamin B, Fluornoy DJ, Passey R, Wilson MF (1981) Effectiveness of steroid/antibiotic treatment in primates administered LD100 E. coli, Ann Surg 194: 51–56PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hinshaw LB, Cox BD (eds) (1972) The fundamental mechanisms of shock. Plenum Publishing Corp, New York pp 311–320Google Scholar
  42. Konigsberg WH, Nemerson Y (1988) Human tissue factor contains thioester-linked palmitate and stearate on the cytoplasmic half-cystine. Biochemistry 27: 4227–4231PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Kornbluth RS, Edgington TS (1986) Tumor necrosis factor production by human monocytes is a regulated event: Induction of TNF-alpha-mediated cellular cytotoxicity by endotoxin. J Immunol 137: 2585–2591PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Kornbluth RS, Gregory SA, Edgington TS (1988) Initial characterization of a lymphokine pathway for the immunological induction of tumor necrosis factor-alpha release from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. J Immunol 141: 2006–2015PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Levy GA, Schwartz BS, Curtiss LK, Edgington TS (1985) The regulatory roles of T mu and T gamma in the collaborative cellular initiation of the extrinsic coagulation pathway by bacterial lipopolysaccharide. J Clin Invest 76: 548–555PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Levy GA, Leibowitz JL, Edgington TS (1981) Induction of monocyte procoagulant activity by murine hepatitis virus type 3 parallels disease susceptibility in mice. J Exp Med 154: 1150–1163PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Mackman N, Fowler BJ, Edgington TS, Morrissey JH (1990) Human tissue factor gene: Functional analysis of expression in COS-7 cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 87: 2254–2258PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Mackman N, Morrissey JH, Fowler B, Edgington TS (1989) Complete sequence of the human tissue factor gene, a highly regulated cellular receptor that initiates the coagulation protease cascade. Biochemistry 28: 1755–1762PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. McKay DG (1964) Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC): An intermediary mechanism of disease. Harper and Row, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  50. Morrissey JH, Fair DS, Edgington TS (1988) Monoclonal antibody analysis of purified and cell-associated tissue factor. Thromb Res 52:247–261PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Morrissey JH, Fakhrai H, Edgington TS (1987) Molecular cloning of the cDNA for tissue factor, the cellular receptor for the initiation of the coagulation protease cascade. Cell 50: 129–135PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Nakamura T, Tokunaga F, Morita T, Iwanaga S, Kusumoto S, Shiba T, Kobayashi T, Inoue, K (1988) Intracellular serine-pro-tease zymogen, factor C, from horseshoe crab hemocytes. Its activation by synthetic lipid A analogues and acidic phospholipids. Eur J Biochem 176: 89–94PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Nemerson Y, Repke D (1985) Tissue factor accelerates the activation of coagulation factor VII: The role of a bifunctional coagulation cofactor. Thromb Res 40: 351–358PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Nemerson Y, Bach, R (1982) Tissue factor revisited. Prog Hemost Thromb 6: 237–261PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Nemerson Y, Gentry R (1986) An ordered addition, essential activation model of the tissue factor pathway of coagulation: evidence for a conformational cage. Biochemistry 25: 4020–4033PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Osterud B, Rapaport SI (1977) Activation of factor IX by the reaction product of tissue factor and factor VII: Additional pathway for initiating blood coagulation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 74: 5260–5264PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Paborsky LR, Tate KM, Harris RJ, Yansura DG, Band L, McCray G, Gorman CM, O’Brien DP, Chang JY, Swartz JR, Fung VP, Thomas JN, Vehar GA (1989) Purification of recombinant human tissue factor. Biochemistry 28: 8072–8077PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Ploplis VA, Edgington TS, Fair DS (1987) Initiation of the extrinsic pathway of coagulation: Association of factor VIIa with a cell line expressing tissue factor. J Biol Chem 262: 9503–9508PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Rao LVM, Rapaport SI (1988) Activation of factor VII bound to tissue factor: A key early step in the tissue factor pathway of blood coagulation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 85: 6687–6691PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Rapaport SI (1989) Inhibition of factor Vila/tissue factor-induced blood coagulation: With particular emphasis upon a factor Xa-dependent inhibitory mechanism. Blood 73: 359–365PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Ruf W, Rehemtulla A, Edgington TS (submitted) Phospholipid dependent and independent interactions required for the expression of tissue factor receptor and cofactor function. J Biol ChemGoogle Scholar
  62. Ryan J, Geczy CL (1986) Characterization and purification of mouse macrophage procoagulantinducing factor. J Immunol 137: 2864–2870PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Scarpati EM, Wen D, Broze GJ Jr, Miletich JP, Flandermeyer RR, Siegel NR, Sadler JE (1987) Human tissue factor: cDNA sequence and chromosome localization of the gene. Biochemistry 26: 5234–5238PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Schiltknecht E, Ada GL, Braciale TJ (1984) Macrophage procoa-gulant-inducing activity of influenza-specific effector T cells. Cell Immunol 89: 342–354PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Scofield VL, Schlumpberger JM, West LA, Weissman IL (1982) Protochordate allorecognition is controlled by a MHC-like gene system. Nature 295: 499–502PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Shaw G, Kamen R (1986) A conserved AU sequence from the 3′ untranslated region of GM-CSF mRNA mediates selective mRNA degradation. Cell 46: 659–667PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Spicer EK, Horton R, Bloem L, Bach R, Williams KR, Guha A, Kraus J, Lin T-C, Nemerson Y, Konigsberg WH (1987) Isolation of cDNA clones coding for human tissue factor: Primary structure of the protein and cDNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 84: 5148–5152PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Taylor FB, Chang AK, Hinshaw LB, Esmon CT, Archer LT, Beller BK (1984) A model for thrombin protection against endotoxin. Thromb Res 36: 177–185PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Taylor FB Jr, Chang A, Esmon CT, D’Angelo A, Vigano-D’Angelo S, Blick KE (1987) Protein C prevents the coagulopathic and lethal effects of escherichia coli infusion in the baboon. J Clin Invest 79: 918–925PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Taylor FB Jr, Emerson TE Jr, Jordan R, Chang AK, Blick KE (1988) Antithrombin-III prevents the lethal effects of Escherichia coli infusion in baboons. Circ Shock 26: 227–235PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Taylor FB Jr, Chang A, Ruf W, Morrissey JH, Hinshaw L, Catlett R, Blick K, Edgington TS (submitted) Lethal E.Coli septic shock is prevented by blocking tissue factor with monoclonal antibody. Circ. ShockGoogle Scholar
  72. Warr TA, Rao VM, Rapaport SI (1989) Human plasma extrinsic pathway inhibitor activity: II. Plasma levels in disseminated intravascular coagulation and hepatocellular disease. Blood 74: 994–998PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Weiss HJ, Turitto VT, Baumgartner HR, Nemerson Y, Hoffmann T (1989) Evidence for the presence of tissue factor activity on subendothelium. Blood 73: 968–975PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Weiss HJ, Lages B (1988) Evidence for tissue factor-dependent activation of the classic extrinsic coagulation mechanism in blood obtained from bleeding time wounds. Blood 71: 629–635PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Wilcox JN, Smith KM, Schwartz SM, Gordon D (1989) Localization of tissue factor in the normal vessel wall and in the atherosclerotic plaque. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 86: 2839–2843PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Wildgoose P, Berkner KL, Kisiel W (1990) Synthesis, purification, and characterization of an Arg152-->Glu sitedirected mutant of recombinant human blood clotting factor VII. Biochemistry 29: 3413–3420PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin, Heidelberg 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thomas S. Edgington
    • 1
  1. 1.Vascular Cell and Molecular Biology Program, Department of ImmunologyResearch Institute of Scripps ClinicLa JollaUSA

Personalised recommendations