Improvement in environmental planning and management (EPM) requires increased integration in four respects: spatial, temporal, economic and administrative. These respects are not independent; and to be effective, integration must improve in all four simultaneously.

To illustrate this, four critical research fronts are examined: conceptual approaches and technical tools for land and water resources allocation (LWRA) in regional EPM; environmental audit and operational feedback; ecological-economic exchange rates, and discount rates, in environmental benefit-cost analysis (EBCA); and EPM in development aid.

Specific problems which are identified as worthy of (and in some cases already receiving) immediate research effort include: non-parametric LWRA procedures; “active” geographic information systems (GIS’s) incorporating LWRA criteria; systematic multi-project environmental audit; modifications to EPM legislation to increase public accountability of development and regulatory agencies; estimation of option costs for land degradation and species extinction; rational and unambiguous determination of discount rates in EBCA; and determination of the economic costs and benefits of EPM in development aid.

Improved EPM techniques, however, are rarely adopted without substantial electoral pressure, and this is contingent on public environmental awareness. One potential key for rapid improvement in such awareness is through “grey power”: environmental education of senior citizens.


Discount Rate Environmental Impact Assessment Environmental Impact Assessment Operational Feedback Damage Cost 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ralf Buckley
    • 1
  1. 1.Griffith University Gold CoastAustralia

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