Transducer Needs for Macrosonics
Macrosonics is the term used for the application of high intensity acoustic energy for producing some kind of permanent effect in a treated medium. Most practical work in macrosonics is done at ultrasonic frequencies, generally within the range of 20 to 100 kHz, usingn acoustic intensities from about 0.1 W/cm to several kW/cm. The main effects produced in macrosonic applications are heat, cavitation, agitation, streaming, interface instabilities and friction, diffusion and mechanical rupture. Transducers for macrosonics are devices of various types with working frequencies within the range of 10 to 100 kHz, power capabilities from hundreds of watts to several kilowatts and large vibration amplitudes. At present, most macrosonic transducers are of the piezoelectric type and have structures based on the classical sandwich arrangement. The main problems for their successful application to industrial processes are related to obtaining uniform amplitude distribution and improving the design and the calculation methods. This paper presents a review of basic piezoelectric transducers for macrosonics and discusses the specific needs for different applications.
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