Advertisement

Electrophysiological Markers of the Early Stages of Alzheimer’s Disease

  • L. de Toledo-Morrell
  • F. Morrell
  • T. J. Hoeppner
  • R. Fortney
  • D. Bennett
Conference paper

Abstract

The goal of this paper is to describe a noninvasive electrophysiological test we have developed in our laboratory which may have promise as a sensitive marker during the very early stages of probable Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We will also present preliminary data which indicate that the electrophysiological pattern shown by probable AD patients is different from that observed in patients with comparable dementia due to vascular causes or in depressed patients.

Keywords

Memory Load Target Letter P300 Amplitude P300 Latency Choice Accuracy 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    American Psychiatric Association Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, (1980) 3rd edn American Psychiatric Association, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ball MJ (1977) Neuronal loss, neurofibrillary tangles and granulovascular degeneration in the hippocampus with ageing and dementia: A quantitative study. Acta Neuropathol 37:111–118PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ball MJ, Hachinski V, Fox A, Kirshen AJ, Fishman M, Blume W, Krai VA, Fox H (1985) A new definition of Alzheimer’s disease: a hippocampal dementia. Lancet 1:14–16PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    deToledo-Morrell L, Evers S, Hoeppner TJ, Morrell F, Garron DC (1988) A stress test for memory: differential effects of memory load on the amplitude of event-related potentials in aging and Alzheimer’s disease. Neurosci Abstr 14:102Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Donchin E, Karis D, Bashore T, Coles MGH, Gratton G (1986) Cognitive psycho-physiology and human information processing. In: Coles MGH, Donchin E, Porges SW (eds) Psychophysiology: systems, processes and applications. Guilford Press, New York, pp 244–267Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Donchin E, Miller GA, Farwell LA (1986) The endogenous components of the event related potential — a diagnostic tool. Prog Brain Res 70:87–102PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Donchin E, Ritter W, McCallum C (1978) Cognitive psychophysiology: The endogenous components of the ERP. In: Callaway E, Tueting P, Koslow S (eds) Event related brain potentials in Man. Academic Press, New York, pp 349–411Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Duncan-Johnson C (1981) P300 latency: a new metric of information processing. Psychophysiology 18:207–215PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Duncan-Johnson C, Donchin E (1977) On quantifying surprise: the variation of eventrelated potentials with subjective probability. Psychophysiology 14:456–467PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Duncan-Johnson C, Donchin E (1982) The P300 component of the event-related brain potential as an index of information processing. Biol Psychol 14:1–52PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Erickson R (1988) Use of semantic P300 in early Alzheimer’s disease detection. Neurosci Abstr 14:102Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Fabiani M, Karis D, Donchin E (1985) Effects of strategy manipulation on P300 amplitude in a von Restorff paradigm. Psychophysiology 22:588–589Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Fabiani M, Karis D, Donchin E (1986) P300 and recall in an incidental memory paradigm. Psychophysiology 23:298–308PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Flicker C, Bartus RT, Crook TH, Ferris SH (1984) Effects of aging and dementia upon recent visuospatial memory. Neurobiol Aging 5:275–283PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Folstein MF, Folstein SE, McHugh PR (1975) “Mini Mental State.” A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. J Psychiatr Res 12: 189–198PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ford JM, Pfefferbaum A (1985) Age-related changes in event-related potentials. Adv Psychophysiol 1:301–339Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Ford JM, Pfefferbaum A, Kopell BS (1982) Effects of perceptual and cognitive difficulty on P3 and RT in young and old adults. Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 54:188–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ford JM, Roth WT, Mohs RC, Hopkins WF, Kopell BS (1979) Event-related potentials recorded from young and old adults during a memory retrieval task. Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 47:450–459PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Goodin DS, Aminoff MJ (1987) Electrophysiological differences between demented and nondemented patients with Parkinson’s disease. Ann Neurol 21:90–94PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Goodin DS, Squires KC, Starr A (1978) Long latency event-related components of the auditory evoked potential in dementia. Brain 101:635–648PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Gordon E, Kraiuhin C, Harris R, Meares R, Howson A (1986) The differential diagnosis of dementia using P300 latency. Biol Psychiat 21:1123–1132PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gordon E, Kraiuhin C, Zurynski Y, Howson A, Meares R (1988) The P300 event related potential and regional cerebral blood flow in the assessment of patients with disorders of short term memory. Neurosci Abstr 14:102Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Greenhouse SW, Geisser S (1959) On methods in the analysis of profile data. Psychometrica 24:95–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Halgren E, Stapleton JM, Smith M, Alfatullah I (1986) Generators of the human scalp P3(s). In: Cracco RQ, Bodis-Wollner I (eds) Evoked potentials. Frontiers in clinical neuroscience, Liss, New York, pp 269–284Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hamos JE, DeGennaro LJ, Drachman DA (1989) Synaptic loss in Alzheimer’s disease and other dementias. Neurology 39:355–361PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hoeppner TJ, deToledo-Morrell L, Morrell F, Evers S (1988) Differential vulnerability of the two hemispheres during the early stages of Alzheimer’s disease: electrophysiological evidence. Neurosci Abstr 14:102Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hyman BT, Van Hoesen GW, Damasio AR, Barnes CL (1984) Alzheimer’s disease: cell specific pathology isolates the hippocampal formation. Science 222:1168–1170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Jasper HH (1958) The ten-twenty electrode system of the International Federation. Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 10:371–375Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Kraiuhin C, Gordon E, Meares R, Howson A (1986) Psychometrics and event-related potentials in the diagnosis of dementia. J Gerontol 41:154–162PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Marsh GR (1975) Age differences in evoked potential correlates of a memory scanning process. Exp Aging Res 1:3–16PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    McCarthy G, Donchin E (1981) A metric for thought: a comparison of P300 latency and reaction time. Science 211:77–80PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    McCarthy G, Wood CC (1985) Scalp distribution of event-related potentials: an ambiguity associated with analysis of variance models. Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 62:203–208PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    McCarthy G, Wood CC, Williamson PD, Spencer DD (1989) Task-dependent field potentials in human hippocampal formation. J Neurosci 9:4253–4268PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    McKhann G, Drachman D, Folstein M, Katzman R, Price D, Stadlan EM (1984) Clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer’s disease: report of the NINCDS-ADRDA work group under the auspices of Department of Health and Human Services Task Force on Alzheimer’s disease. Neurology 34:939–944PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Meador KJ, Hammond RT, Loring DW, Allen M, Bowers D, Heilman KM (1987) Cognitive evoked potentials and disorders of recent memory. Neurology 37:526–529PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Milner B (1978) Clues to the cerebral organization of memory. In: Buser PA, Rougel-Buser A (eds) Symposium on cerebral correlates of conscious experience, Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 139–153Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Muramoto O (1984) Selective reminding in normal and demented aged people: auditory verbal versus visual spatial task. Cortex 20:461–478PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Patterson JV, Michalewski HJ, Starr A (1988) Latency variability of the components of auditory event-related potentials to infrequent stimuli in aging, Alzheimer-type dementia, and depression. Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 71:450–460PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Perlmutter M, Metzger R, Nezworsky T, Miller K (1981) Spatial and temporal memory in 20 and 60 year olds. J Gerontol 36:59–65PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Pfefferbaum A, Ford JM, Kraemer HC (1990) Clinical utility of long latency “cognitive” event-related potentials (P3): the cons. Electroenceph Clin Neurophysiol 76:6–12PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Pfefferbaum A, Wenegrat BG, Ford JM, Roth WT, Kopell BS (1984) Clinical application of the P3 component of event-related potentials. II. Dementia, depression and schizophrenia. Electoenceph Clin Neurophysiol 59:104–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Polich J, Howard L, Starr A (1985) Effects of age on the P300 component of the event-related potential from auditory stimuli: peak definition, variation and measurement. J Gerontol 40:721–726PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Pollock VE, Schneider LS, Chui HC, Henderson V, Zemansky M, Sloane RB (1989) Visual evoked potentials in dementia: a meta-analysis and empirical study of Alzheimer’s disease patients. Biol Psychiatry 25:1003–1013PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Press GA, Amaral DG, Squire L (1989) Hippocampal abnormalities in amnesic patients revealed by high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. Nature 341:54–57PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Puce A, Kalnins RM, Berkovic SF, Donnan GA, Bladin PF (1989) Limbic P3 potentials, seizure location and surgical pathology in temporal lobe epilepsy. Ann Neurol 26: 377–385PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Sharps MJ, Gollin ES (1987) Memory for object locations in young and elderly adults. J Gerontol 42:336–341PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Smith ML, Milner B (1981) The role of the right hippocampus in the recall of spatial location. Neuropsychologia 19:781–793PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Squires NK, Halgren E, Wilson CL, Crandall PH (1981) Human endogenous limbic potentials: cross-modality and depth surface comparisons in epileptic subjects. In: Gaillard AWK, Ritter W (eds) Tutorials in ERP research. Endogenous components. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 217–232Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Starr A, Barrett G (1987) Disordered auditory short-term memory in man and event-related potentials. Brain 110:935–959PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Sternberg S (1966) High-speed scanning of human memory. Science 153:652–654PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Sutton S, Braren M, Zubin J, John ER (1965) Evoked potential correlates of stimulus uncertainty. Science 150:1187–1188PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Terry RD, Davies P (1980) Dementia of the Alzheimer type. Ann Rev Neurosci 3:77–95PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Wood CC, McCarthy G, Kim JH, Spencer DD, Williamson PD (1988) Abnormalities in temporal lobe event-related potentials predict hippocampal cell loss in temporal lobe epilepsy. Neurosci Abstr 14:5Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Zola-Morgan S, Squire LR, Amaral DG (1986) Human amnesia and the medial temporal region: enduring memory impairment following a bilateral lesion limited to field CAÍ of the hippocampus. J Neurosci 6:2950–2967PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. de Toledo-Morrell
    • 1
  • F. Morrell
    • 1
  • T. J. Hoeppner
    • 1
  • R. Fortney
    • 1
  • D. Bennett
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Neurological Sciences and the Rush Alzheimer’s Disease CenterRush Medical CollegeChicagoUSA

Personalised recommendations